The relationship between health related knowledge, attitudes and dental Pupils' dental health attitudes could be explained by their present self-care practices. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in . dental caries affect aesthetic, total health has relationship with dental health. Relationship Between Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Primary School Teachers and Their Oral Health-related Quality of Life: A Cross-sectional .
In regards to the haze phenomenon in particular, the increase in airborne fine particulate matter during haze periods has been shown to produce adverse acute health effects [ 78 ].
The long-term health impact of air pollution has been recently indicated by a quasi-experimental Chinese study, which found increased cardiorespiratory mortality, and a corresponding decrease in life expectancy, amongst populations exposed to air pollution [ 8 ].
It can therefore be anticipated that exposure to haze amongst residents of peninsular Malaysia will also have chronic health implications. With a political solution to the haze crisis remaining elusive, studies of human perception and behaviour in response to the phenomenon are urgently needed. The public perception of urban air pollution has elsewhere been indicated as a key driver of personal behavioural change [ 9 ].
Most clearly explained in the research guidelines of Medicins du monde [ 10 ], qualitative studies based on a Knowledge-Attitudes-Practices KAP model are a common method for understanding and analysing human responses to particular phenomena, especially in the field of health studies [ 1112 ].
The connection between people's attitudes and practices is well established in psychology, explained through the Theory of Planned Behaviour [ 13 ]. The role of various antecedents, mediators and moderators in the relationship between attitude and practices has been investigated, with special importance given to knowledge in relation to environment- and health-related attitudes and behaviour. Links between knowledge, attitude and practices have been derived internationally in relation to health issues [ 14 ], and there is support for a knowledge-practices link among Malaysians [ 15 ].
For specifically environmental matters, the Ecological Attitude-Knowledge Scale [ 16 ] is one well-known effort to determine the knowledge-attitudes link, and a comprehensive meta-analysis has found knowledge and perceived threats to personal health to be amongst the strongest factors affecting environment-related practices [ 17 ]. Education has also been shown to be a significant factor in the knowledge of environmental problems amongst an Indonesian sample [ 19 ].
Moreover, health conditions related to air pollution have been shown to increase the levels of knowledge of air quality and how it relates to respiratory diseases [ 18 ].
Our high-risk population were amateur athletes taking part in a duathlon competition at the end of the haze season in Peninsular Malaysia. General air pollution studies show that the haze represents greater health risks for people practicing outdoor sports regularly [ 20 ]. Duathlon is a sport that combines cycling and running and that requires intensive training, generally outdoors. We therefore assumed that amateur duathletes are a self-aware higher-risk population and that such vulnerability would affect their levels of awareness, concern, and protective behaviours to mitigate this risk.
Specifically, we aimed at testing the following three hypotheses: We expected people who know more about the phenomenon, in terms of its origins, occurrence and frequency of severe episodes, instruments to check its severity, and economic and health-related consequences, will report more concerned attitudes towards it, compared to people with a lower level of awareness.
We also expected people with greater knowledge and more concerned attitudes about the haze to consequently engage more in effective protective behaviours. People who regularly practice outdoor sport are more exposed to the health-related consequences of haze, as well as being more exposed to the visible dimension of the phenomenon.
Thus, we expect them to show more awareness, and consistent with hypotheses 1 and 2 also a higher degree of concern and practice of protective behaviours in relation to the haze. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among the health care professionals working at KFMC, Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of health professionals consisting of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and medical students was carried out using a structured, self-administered, close-ended questionnaire.
Doctors showed a high mean knowledge score as compared with other health professionals.
The attitude toward visit to the dentist varied; Majority of the health professionals said that the fear of drilling was the main reason for avoiding the dentist. Almost all the health professionals said that they cleaned their tooth by toothbrush and toothpaste. Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.
Many oral conditions are intimately related to systemic diseases. Optimally, total health care requires the combined efforts of the medical and dental professions. Other questions related to oral healthcare practices, such as how often they brushed their teeth regularly or not, and if regularly how many times a daywhether they had an electric toothbrush, whether they used dental floss, and whether they used fluoridated products toothpaste, tablets, drops, or mouthwash.
After oral examination of each child, the dentist recorded number of decayed, missing or filled teeth in the permanent dentition DFMT and number of decayed or filled teeth in the deciduous dentition dft. WHO methodology was used for oral health surveys Hygiene score extent of plaque was evaluated on the vestibular surfaces of 6 teeth 2 upper molars, 2 lower molars, 1 upper incisive and 1 lower incisive: Definition of variables The variable "knowledge" took a value of 0 - 10 depending on the answers to the six questions related to this variable Table 2: The variable "attititude" was measured with a single question: The variable "practice" was assessed with the following questions: The response to this latter question is recorded as number of situations in which the subject eats sweets i.
Two socioeconomic variables were included in the analysis: Data analysis The analysis aimed to verify the study hypothesis that a higher level of knowledge about oral health will be correlated with greater positive motivation towards brushing and oral healthcare. To this end we used stepwise multiple regression analysis with dependent variable hygiene score as defined above. Variables that did have any significant effect on the dependent variable were successively eliminated from the model.
Results Table 1 summarizes the basic demographic and oral health characteristics of the subjects in our sample. DFMT was on average 1. Table 2 shows the distribution of subjects in the different categories of the variables "knowledge", "attitude" and "practice".
Half of the subjects knew that sugar provokes caries to great extent "a lot". In contrast, the level of awareness of gingivitis and how it can be avoided was poor: The level of hygiene observed by the dentist was incorrect i.
Table 3 summarizes the relationship between attitude and practice in subjects with strong knowledge knowledge score 5 - 10 and subjects with weak knowledge knowledge score 0 - 5. Of the subjects with strong knowledge, Subjects with strong knowledge likewise showed better oral healthcare practice.
However, neither the attitude nor the practice variables differed significantly between the strong- and weak-knowledge groups. Table 4 summarizes the results of multiple regression with hygiene score extent of plaque as dependent variable, showing significant effects of several factors.
According to the coefficients shown in the table, greater knowledge was associated with better hygiene i.
Discussion The results of this study indicate a relationship, in year-old subjects, between knowledge about oral health, attitudes to oral health, and oral health practice. However, the results also show that attitude is not fully explained by knowledge, and thus that it cannot be understood simply as an intermediate variable in a putative causal relationship between knowledge and practice. The variable hygiene score i. These findings support the "critical approach" to health education, since they indicate that social factors notably family educational level and urban or rural habitat need to be taken into account in public education programmes aimed at improving oral health practices.
Oral health knowledge, attitudes and practice in year-old schoolchildren
Tewari 14,15 observed that daily tooth brushing became more frequent after a community education programme about oral hygiene. In other studies based on the KAP model as applied in health education, the educational intervention significantly improved oral health practice In our sample According to the traditional approach to health education using the KAP model, the knowledge acquired by the subject generates as a direct result attitudes that in turn give rise to changes in practice i.
In the context of oral health, however much knowledge the subject already has about healthcare and associated preventive measures, better positive attitudes can always be achieved 9and these will generate healthier habits eating fewer sweets, brushing your teeth daily, using mouthwashes and fluoridated toothpaste.
This relationship is seen in the present study see Table 3. Subjects with strong and weak knowledge of oral health issues did not show statistically significant differences in the responses to the question used to assess attitude, or in responses to the three questions used to assess practice.Steve Henry: Why Do a KAP Study?
However, average "attitude" score and average "practice" score were both higher in subjects with better knowledge of oral health. Although psychologists and health educators have maintained the KAP model for many years, in recent years it has become increasingly clear that there is no direct relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practice 9, This lack of direct relationship is supported by the results of the present study. Multiple regression analysis to identify factors affecting oral hygiene i.
These results are in line with previous reports 4,9,10, Different authors have explained effects of this type in terms of inequality of access to oral healthcare services 9,