Neuroscience Resources for Kids - Body System Interaction
According to Atopy | AAAAI,. "Atopy refers to the genetic tendency to develop allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic. Our anatomy pictures and descriptions of the integumentary system will show you why. The hypodermis serves as the flexible connection between the skin and the the skin. The digestion of apocrine sweat by bacteria produces body odor. Integumentary System | Follicles and Glands | Hair and Nails | Skin and Homeostasis The skin is the largest organ in the body: % of body weight, with a.
The nail bed is pink in color due to the presence of capillaries that support the cells of the nail body. The proximal end of the nail near the root forms a whitish crescent shape known as the lunula where a small amount of nail matrix is visible through the nail body.
Around the proximal and lateral edges of the nail is the eponychiuma layer of epithelium that overlaps and covers the edge of the nail body. The eponychium helps to seal the edges of the nail to prevent infection of the underlying tissues. Sudoriferous Glands Sudoriferous glands are exocrine glands found in the dermis of the skin and commonly known as sweat glands.
There are 2 major types of sudoriferous glands: Eccrine sweat glands are found in almost every region of the skin and produce a secretion of water and sodium chloride. Apocrine sweat glands are found in mainly in the axillary and pubic regions of the body.
The ducts of apocrine sweat glands extend into the follicles of hairs so that the sweat produced by these glands exits the body along the surface of the hair shaft. Apocrine sweat glands are inactive until puberty, at which point they produce a thick, oily liquid that is consumed by bacteria living on the skin.
The digestion of apocrine sweat by bacteria produces body odor.
Sebaceous Glands Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands found in the dermis of the skin that produce an oily secretion known as sebum. Sebaceous glands are found in every part of the skin except for the thick skin of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
Integumentary System to other Human Body Systems by Ashley Pruitt on Prezi
Sebum is produced in the sebaceous glands and carried through ducts to the surface of the skin or to hair follicles. Sebum acts to waterproof and increase the elasticity of the skin. Sebum also lubricates and protects the cuticles of hairs as they pass through the follicles to the exterior of the body. Ceruminous Glands Ceruminous glands are special exocrine glands found only in the dermis of the ear canals.
Ceruminous glands produce a waxy secretion known as cerumen to protect the ear canals and lubricate the eardrum. Cerumen protects the ears by trapping foreign material such as dust and airborne pathogens that enter the ear canal. Cerumen is made continuously and slowly pushes older cerumen outward toward the exterior of the ear canal where it falls out of the ear or is manually removed. Physiology of the Integumentary System Keratinization Keratinization, also known as cornification, is the process of keratin accumulating within keratinocytes.
Keratinocytes begin their life as offspring of the stem cells of the stratum basale.
Young keratinocytes have a cuboidal shape and contain almost no keratin protein at all. As the stem cells multiply, they push older keratinocytes towards the surface of the skin and into the superficial layers of the epidermis. By the time keratinocytes reach the stratum spinosum, they have begun to accumulate a significant amount of keratin and have become harder, flatter, and more water resistant.
As the keratinocytes reach the stratum granulosum, they have become much flatter and are almost completely filled with keratin. At this point the cells are so far removed from the nutrients that diffuse from the blood vessels in the dermis that the cells go through the process of apoptosis.
Apoptosis is programmed cell death where the cell digests its own nucleus and organelles, leaving only a tough, keratin-filled shell behind. Dead keratinocytes moving into the stratum lucidum and stratum corneum are very flat, hard, and tightly packed so as to form a keratin barrier to protect the underlying tissues. In the case of the body entering a state of hyperthermia, the skin is able to reduce body temperature through sweating and vasodilation.
Sweat produced by sudoriferous glands delivers water to the surface of the body where it begins to evaporate.
Vasodilation is the process through which smooth muscle lining the blood vessels in the dermis relax and allow more blood to enter the skin. In the case of the body entering a state of hypothermia, the skin is able to raise body temperature through the contraction of arrector pili muscles and through vasoconstriction.
The follicles of hairs have small bundles of smooth muscle attached to their base called arrector pili muscles. The arrector pili form goose bumps by contracting to move the hair follicle and lifting the hair shaft upright from the surface of the skin.
This movement results in more air being trapped under the hairs to insulate the surface of the body. Vasoconstriction is the process of smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels in the dermis contracting to reduce the flood of blood to the skin.
Vitamin D Synthesis Vitamin D, an essential vitamin necessary for the absorption of calcium from food, is produced by ultraviolet UV light striking the skin. The stratum basale and stratum spinosum layers of the epidermis contain a sterol molecule known as 7-dehydrocholesterol. When UV light present in sunlight or tanning bed lights strikes the skin, it penetrates through the outer layers of the epidermis and strikes some of the molecules of 7-dehydrocholesterol, converting it into vitamin D3.
Vitamin D3 is converted in the kidneys into calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. When our skin is not exposed to sufficient amounts of sunlight, we can develop vitamin D deficiency, potentially leading to serious health concerns.
The ability to order a vitamin D home test and check our own levels thankfully makes it simpler to identify deficiency. Protection The skin provides protection to its underlying tissues from pathogens, mechanical damage, and UV light. Pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, are unable to enter the body through unbroken skin due to the outermost layers of epidermis containing an unending supply of tough, dead keratinocytes. This protection explains the necessity of cleaning and covering cuts and scrapes with bandages to prevent infection.
The brain regulates respiratory rate.Integumentary System
Digestive System The digestive system stores and digests foods, transfers nutrients to the body, eliminates waste and absorbs water. Stomach, esophagus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines Digestive processes provide the building blocks for some neurotransmitters.
The autonomic nervous system controls the tone of the digestive tract. The brain controls drinking and feeding behavior. The brain controls muscles for eating and elimination. The digestive system sends sensory information to the brain. Reproductive System The reproductive system is responsible for producing new life. Testes, vas deferens, prostate gland, ovary, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix Reproductive hormones affect brain development and sexual behavior.
The brain controls mating behavior. Urinary System The urinary system eliminates waste products and maintains water balance and chemical balance. Bladder, urethra, kidney The bladder sends sensory information to the brain. The brain controls urination.
The skin also is important in helping to regulate your body temperature. If you are too hot or too cold, your brain sends nerve impulses to the skin, which has three ways to either increase or decrease heat loss from the body's surface: Your skin plays a vital role in your body as regards the sense of touch. The nervous system depends on neurons embedded in your skin to sense the outside world.
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It processes input from your senses, including touch, and initiates actions based on those inputs. For example, when you stub your toe, nerve cells in the foot send signals up the leg, through the spinal cord, and up into the brain.
The nerve cell connections in the brain sense these signals as pain. An example is provided by the way that the skin helps in temperature regulation by changes in the pattern of blood supply to the skin and by sweating, as mentioned above.