Similarities and differences between Chinese and Japanese
It refers to the Chinese characters that both languages make use of in their writing systems Let's start with a super-obvious difference between hanzi and kanji. This time, let us take a look at the relationship between written Chinese and The Japanese and Chinese languages both use an extremely sophisticated. Aug 4, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Language Group Rather, the relationship between languages is measured by how those languages developed.
This is not a unique phenomenon. Many languages have resorted to Latin script, Arabic script, and Cyrillic script for giving their languages a writing system.
'Hanzi and kanji: differences in the Chinese and Japanese character sets today'
But of course, using a foreign writing system not developed specifically to a language is a rather difficult process. Of course, tweaks have been made to writing systems throughout the years. The relationship between Chinese and Japanese is no different. To accommodate differences, the Japanese used Chinese characters not just for their meaning, but also for phonetic purposes.
As cursive became more common in writing the characters, the phonetic characters began getting more simplified in appearance. That is where hiragana and katakana came from; the simplified versions of cursive characters. Ex from character to hiragana: Hiragana is now used for grammatical purposes, such as help in conjugating verbs, as well as phonetic purposes and particles to determine components of a sentence clearly.
With the arrival of Chinese characters, many words, concepts, names, and meanings that did not originally exist in Japanese were introduced. As a result, many Kanji Chinese characters used in Japanesewere adopted and pronounced as close as possible to their original Chinese phonetics. The phonetics are closer to Cantonese than Mandarin though.
The History of the Japanese Language
Many of these characters were also present in terms that DID exist in Japanese, so they had two pronunciations. How a Kanji is pronounced depends on if it is a compound with other Kanji, the hiragana that succeed or precede it, or if it is a standalone.
Fast forward to around the last hundred years. The Japanese have accommodated Chinese characters to their language. They now have three writing systems, each serving a different purpose, and different ways to pronounce Kanji based on the word, all of these documented of course.
Their language was now standardized. In an effort to raise literacy rates, the Communist government went about to simplify many Hanzi, so they would be easier to learn to write. Some were based on cursive styles of characters or archaic versions of characters.
According to this view, the eight-vowel system of ancient Japanese would resemble that of the Uralic and Altaic language families. A newer reconstruction of ancient Japanese shows strikingly similarities with Southeast-Asian languages, especially with Austronesian languages.
Several fossilizations of Old Japanese grammatical elements remain in the modern language — the genitive particle tsu superseded by modern no is preserved in words such as matsuge "eyelash", lit.
Early Middle Japanese Main article: Early Middle Japanese sees a significant amount of Chinese influence on the language's phonology — length distinctions become phonemic for both consonants and vowels, and series of both labialised e. Late Middle Japanese Main article: Late Middle Japanese Late Middle Japanese covers the years from toand is normally divided into two sections, roughly equivalent to the Kamakura period and the Muromachi periodrespectively. The later forms of Late Middle Japanese are the first to be described by non-native sources, in this case the Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries; and thus there is better documentation of Late Middle Japanese phonology than for previous forms for instance, the Arte da Lingoa de Iapam.
Some forms rather more familiar to Modern Japanese speakers begin to appear — the continuative ending -te begins to reduce onto the verb e. Late Middle Japanese has the first loanwords from European languages — now-common words borrowed into Japanese in this period include pan "bread" and tabako "tobacco", now "cigarette"both from Portuguese.
Early Modern Japanese Main article: Because the two languages are extremely similar, Early Modern Japanese is commonly referred to as Modern Japanese. Early Modern Japanese gradually evolved into Modern Japanese during the 19th century.
Only aftershortly after World War II, did Modern Japanese become the standard language, seeing use in most official communications. Since Old Japanese, the de facto standard Japanese had been the Kansai dialectespecially that of Kyoto.
However, during the Edo period, Edo now Tokyo developed into the largest city in Japan, and the Edo-area dialect became standard Japanese. Since the end of Japan's self-imposed isolation inthe flow of loanwords from European languages has increased significantly.
- The real relationship between Japanese and Chinese
- Similarities and differences between Chinese and Japanese
The period since has seen a large number of words borrowed from other languages—such as German, Portuguese and English. Before and during World War IIthrough Japanese annexation of Taiwan and Koreaas well as partial occupation of Chinathe Philippinesand various Pacific islands,  locals in those countries learned Japanese as the language of the empire.
As a result, many elderly people in these countries can still speak Japanese. Japanese emigrant communities the largest of which are to be found in Brazil with 1. Japanese emigrants can also be found in PeruArgentinaAustralia especially in the eastern statesCanada especially in Vancouver where 1.
There is a form of the language considered standard: The meanings of the two terms are almost the same. The two systems have different rules of grammar and some variance in vocabulary. Bungo still has some relevance for historians, literary scholars, and lawyers many Japanese laws that survived World War II are still written in bungo, although there are ongoing efforts to modernize their language.
Japanese dialects Map of Japanese dialects and Japonic languages Dozens of dialects are spoken in Japan. The profusion is due to many factors, including the length of time the Japanese Archipelago has been inhabited, its mountainous island terrain, and Japan's long history of both external and internal isolation.
Dialects typically differ in terms of pitch accentinflectional morphologyvocabularyand particle usage. Some even differ in vowel and consonant inventories, although this is uncommon.
'Hanzi and Kanji: Differences in the Chinese and Japanese Character Sets Today' | East Asia Student
Within each type are several subdivisions. Kyoto-Osaka-type dialects are in the central region, roughly formed by KansaiShikokuand western Hokuriku regions. Dialects of the Kansai region are spoken or known by many Japanese, and Osaka dialect in particular is associated with comedy see Kansai dialect. The imperial court also seems to have spoken an unusual variant of the Japanese of the time.
As these closely related languages are commonly treated as dialects of the same language, Japanese is often called a language isolate. According to Martine Irma Robbeets, Japanese has been subject to more attempts to show its relation to other languages than any other language in the world. At the fringe, some linguists have suggested a link to Indo-European languagesincluding Greekand to Lepcha. As it stands, only the link to Ryukyuan has wide support, though linguist Kurakichi Shiratori maintained that Japanese was a language isolate.
Historical linguists studying Japanese and Korean tend to accept the genealogical relation, while general linguists and historical linguists in Japan and Korea have remained skeptical. According to Vovin, this suggests linguistic convergence rather than divergencewhich he believes is amongst the evidence of the languages not having a genealogical connection. The most controversial aspect of the hypothesis is the proposed inclusion of Korean and Japanese, which even some proponents of Altaic have rejected.
Sergei Starostin published a monograph which was another significant stepping stone in Japanese—Altaic research.
A team of scholars made a database of Altaic etymologies available over the internet, from which the three-volume Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages was published in While some sources are undecided, often strong proponents of either view will not even acknowledge the claims of the other side.
Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: Spoken Japanese All Japanese vowels are pure—that is, there are no diphthongsonly monophthongs.
Japanese has five vowels, and vowel length is phonemic, with each having both a short and a long version. Some Japanese consonants have several allophoneswhich may give the impression of a larger inventory of sounds. However, some of these allophones have since become phonemic. The "r" of the Japanese language is of particular interest, ranging between an apical central tap and a lateral approximant. The syllabic structure and the phonotactics are very simple: This type of cluster only occurs in onsets.
However, consonant clusters across syllables are allowed as long as the two consonants are a nasal followed by a homorganic consonant. Consonant length gemination is also phonemic. The phonology of Japanese also includes a pitch accent systemwhich is a system that helps differentiate words with identical Hiragana spelling or words in different Japanese dialects.
The stresses differentiate the words. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. November Main article: Japanese grammar Sentence structure Japanese word order is classified as subject—object—verb. Unlike many Indo-European languagesthe only strict rule of word order is that the verb must be placed at the end of a sentence possibly followed by sentence-end particles.
This is because Japanese sentence elements are marked with particles that identify their grammatical functions. The basic sentence structure is topic—comment. The verb de aru desu is a contraction of its polite form de arimasu is a copulacommonly translated as "to be" or "it is" though there are other verbs that can be translated as "to be"though technically it holds no meaning and is used to give a sentence 'politeness'.
As a phrase, Tanaka-san desu is the comment. This sentence literally translates to "As for this person, it is Mr. In Japanese, the subject or object of a sentence need not be stated if it is obvious from context. As a result of this grammatical permissiveness, there is a tendency to gravitate towards brevity; Japanese speakers tend to omit pronouns on the theory they are inferred from the previous sentence, and are therefore understood.
In the context of the above example, hana-ga nagai would mean "[their] noses are long," while nagai by itself would mean "[they] are long. In addition, since adjectives can form the predicate in a Japanese sentence belowa single adjective can be a complete sentence: While the language has some words that are typically translated as pronouns, these are not used as frequently as pronouns in some Indo-European languages, and function differently.
In some cases Japanese relies on special verb forms and auxiliary verbs to indicate the direction of benefit of an action: Here, the in-group includes the speaker and the out-group does not, and their boundary depends on context.
Such beneficiary auxiliary verbs thus serve a function comparable to that of pronouns and prepositions in Indo-European languages to indicate the actor and the recipient of an action. Japanese "pronouns" also function differently from most modern Indo-European pronouns and more like nouns in that they can take modifiers as any other noun may. For instance, one does not say in English: This is why some linguists do not classify Japanese "pronouns" as pronouns, but rather as referential nouns, much like Spanish usted contracted from vuestra merced, "your [ flattering majestic plural ] grace" or Portuguese o senhor.
Japanese personal pronouns are generally used only in situations requiring special emphasis as to who is doing what to whom.