The Role of Magazines in the Development of American Popular Culture
Although magazines' great contributions to the development of culture and popular Mass circulation of magazines united the country as geographically diverse . an industry group known as the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers. What is the relationship between high culture and popular culture? This question, which is common in contemporary discussions of the. High-level industry professionals and celebrities generally deem these “There are hundreds of magazines that sell only pop culture, e.g. the.
Macedoniaa completely different set of questions are more urgent but are also related to the relation between neo-liberal capitalism and art and how populism overwrites art.What is POPULAR CULTURE? What does POPULAR CULTURE mean? POPULAR CULTURE meaning & explanation
Art and culture are now treated and viewed as a financial asset, while academia at large is vested in power sharing with, as opposed to challenging, institution. The starting point should be the question of distribution. Mass culture is for infinite distribution for the many. High culture is for zero distribution: High art must accept a new logic of distribution in the digital age.
It always was in its own right. A lot of that is more from the logic of commodification. Popular culture is an entirely different ballgame. It is not interested in being art, anymore than kitsch cares about whether it is original or fake. It just is, period.
This is one of the big pluses of popular culture, kitsch or no kitsch: It is not a stored-up cultural capital that feeds off its ancestry or intellectual depth, but rather a free radical that ignites both what is valued and what is discarded.
It is precisely this equalizing talent that makes kitsch so hard to accept. We see it through irony, for example. Folk culture is local in orientation, and non-commercial. In short, folk culture promises stability, whereas popular culture is generally looking for something new or fresh.
Because of this, popular culture often represents an intrusion and a challenge to folk culture. Conversely, folk culture rarely intrudes upon popular culture. There are times when certain elements of folk culture eg Turkish rugs, Mexican blankets and Irish fairy tales find their way into the world of pop culture.
Generally, when items of folk culture are appropriated and marketed by the popular culture, the folk items gradually lose their original form. A key characteristic of popular culture is its accessibility to the masses. It is, after all, the culture of the people. High culture, on the other hand, is not mass produced, nor meant for mass consumption.
It belongs to the social elite; the fine arts, opera, theatre, and high intellectualism are associated with the upper socioeconomic classes. Items of high culture often require extensive experience, training, or reflection to be appreciated. Such items seldom cross over to the pop culture domain.
Consequently, popular culture is generally looked down upon as being superficial when compared to the sophistication of high culture. This does not mean that social elites do not participate in popular culture or that members of the masses do not participate in high culture.
The Formation of Popular Culture Through most of human history, the masses were influenced by dogmatic forms of rule and traditions dictated by local folk culture. With the beginning of the Industrial era late eighteenth centurythe rural masses began to migrate to cities, leading to the urbanization of most Western societies.
- High Art versus Pop Culture Now. (An International Survey)
- Pop Culture: An Overview
- Discovering What is Popular Culture Through Contemporary Art
Urbanization is a key ingredient in the formation of popular culture. People who once lived in homogeneous small villages or farms found themselves in crowded cities marked by great cultural diversity. Thus, many scholars trace the beginning of the popular culture phenomenon to the rise of the middle class brought on by the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization also brought with it mass production; developments in transportation, such as the steam locomotive and the steamship; advancements in building technology; increased literacy; improvements in education and public health; and the emergence of efficient forms of commercial printing, representing the first step in the formation of a mass media eg the penny press, magazines, and pamphlets.
All of these factors contributed to the blossoming of popular culture. By the start of the twentieth century, the print industry mass-produced illustrated newspapers and periodicals, as well as serialized novels and detective stories. Newspapers served as the best source of information for a public with a growing interest in social and economic affairs.
Discovering What is Popular Culture Through Contemporary Art | Widewalls
The ideas expressed in print provided a starting point for popular discourse on all sorts of topics. Fueled by further technological growth, popular culture was greatly impacted by the emerging forms of mass media throughout the twentieth century.
How does popular culture affect our existence? Shephard Fairey — Obama Hope- image via wallpapercave. A popular culture definition can be a subject of a never-ending public and academic discourse. Coined in the 19th century, the term was traditionally associated with the taste of lower and uneducated classes as opposed to the official culture of the upper class. At the beginning and all through the first half of the 20th century, mass culture was perceived in two different, but equally demeaning ways.
Leftwing theoreticians saw it as something produced from the above, an attempt to passivize subordinate classes. On the other hand, conservative school of thought saw the mass culture as a vehicle of aesthetic, stylistic and even ethic degradation of their elite culture.
As it became clear that the masses were not passive recipients of the products and practices from the mass culture, but quite engaged consumers and creators that shaped their own cultural world, the field of popular culture became an arena for rebellion against the interests of dominant groups and against their practices of cultural patronizing. Thus, the attempt to define popular culture necessarily included the understandings of oscillations between the dichotomy control-resistance. After the World War II, different innovations in mass media led to significant cultural and social changes and popular culture began to take new forms and a much wider reach.
In a hardly separable flux of influences and inspiration, popular culture shaped and was shaped by everything that was brought by new technologies, new media and the emerging consumer society. The meaning of popular culture began to merge with the practices of the everyday and by rejecting the cultural oppression coming from the official narratives, the realm of popular began including creators and consumers regardless of their class, gender or race.
Popular Culture Collage, via sallyedelsteincollage. During the s and s, the new wave of audience research was employed within communications and cultural studies to explore the way meaning was negotiated and constructed.
Apart from the written language, cultural studies use the concept of text to also designate television programs, films, photographs, and anything else that communicates ideas, values and interests. In this way, texts of culture studies are comprised of all the meaningful artifacts of culture. The audience analysis emphasized the diversity of responses to a given popular culture artifact through exploration of active choices, uses, and interpretations made of popular cultural texts.
As a qualitative and ethnographic method, this analysis tries to isolate variables like region, race, ethnicity, age, gender and income and observe the ways in which different social groups construct different meanings for the same text.
The audience can be active, constantly filtering or resisting content, or passive, complying and vulnerable. The audience analysis can be traced back to the work done by the British sociologist Stuart Hall and his new proposed model of mass communication. Emphasizing the importance of active interpretation within relevant codes, his model suggested that the same event can be encoded in more than one way, that the message contains more than one possible reading and that the understanding the message can be a problematic process.
The work of Stuart Hall and the ethnographic turn have significantly contributed to our understanding of the processes of interpretation and important relationships between media texts and the production of identity. The First 3D Film Experience, via pinterest. Interpretative and content analysis are two main forms of the textual analysis of popular culture artifacts. Encompassing semiotics, rhetorical analysis, ideological analysis, and psychoanalytical approaches, among many others, interpretative textual analyses aims to go beyond the surface meanings and explore more implicit societal meaning.
On the other hand, content analysis is a more quantitative approach where qualitative data from the text evaluation can be converted into quantitative data that reflects the salient concerns of that particular discourse. It can be very valuable when linked to qualitative kinds of analysis which are usually somewhat subjective observations. Professor Jeff Lewis argued that textual study is the most complex and difficult heuristic method that requires both powerful interceptive skills and a subtle conception of politics and context.
Later on, textual analysis within the cultural studies framework evolved towards an emphasis on reception studies increasingly. It is a complex process that analyzes the language beyond the sentence, taking into account all levels of the text and context, as well as the wider cultural background.
The critical discourse analysis is able to provide the understanding, skills, and tools by which we can demonstrate the place of language in the construction, constitution, and regulation of the societal world. The critical discourse analysis has been examining formal media such as newspapers and oral, written and visual political discourse, but is also applied to the analysis of popular culture texts. The core case of cultural studies is that language does not mirror an independent object world but constructs and constitutes it.
Our thinking and our telling of experiences are structured by text-mediated discourses. Many discussions of popular culture have been structured by considerations of power, class, and gender. The assumptions underlying discourses on popular culture, such as assumptions concerning class and culture, the role of women, or authenticity and cultural doctrine, raise issues which should be examined critically in current discussions of popular culture.
Roy Lichtenstein — Whaam! From the old pre-Judeo-Christian ideas of binary gender, of two genders determined by sex which, for one reason or another, are in constant opposition and conflict, to the more contemporary definitions that break the concept into an entire spectrum of identities — it has always been something people strongly felt about. As such, it has also been an ideal vehicle for a multitude of artists to engage in discussions with the audience via their works. Coinciding with, and mostly being a product of the rise of feminismthis has given the movement a powerful outlet for action as well as creativity.
A biographical film on Frida Kahlo has made her fascinating body of work known to the masses, while Marina Abramovic became a household name even outside of the art circles after a performance piece inspired by her work appeared on the globally popular TV show Sex and the City. Depending on the cultural, religious, and moral climate, it was more or less an an allegory in art. For centuries thinly veiled in mythological and allegorical subjects, the depiction of sexual themes became more and more bold, until Toulouse-Lautrec and later Egon Schiele started really taking down the barriers with un-idealized depictions of real-life situations of the more intimate kind.
Fashionwith its idea of the modern, free-thinking flapper, and later science, with the invention of the birth-control pill, both contributed to sex and sexuality being viewed as something to be celebrated, rather than to be ashamed of. Throughout the second half of the 20th centuryin the entertainment world, stars such as Madonna did their share of the work in deconstructing old, patriarchal notions of modesty.
The arts may have been leading the way but it was popular or rather mass culture that really tore down most of the barriers. And while today some more radical creative minds still explore sexuality in a very raw manner, the theme seems to have lost some of its appeal due to its omnipresence in the media.
Both popular culture as well as the more avant-garde sections of the arts mimic this in sync.
Of course, homoerotic themes have been around for centuries, albeit under a deep cover of prejudice. Even though some pieces from the late Victorian era would nowadays be considered gay-themed the canvases of Henry Scott Tuke immediately spring to mindit was only in the late 60s and early 70shand in hand with the abovementioned sexual revolution, that the grip began to loosen and themes dealing with different kinds of love and sexuality could be treated publically.
Music icons such as David BowieJanis Joplin, Michael Jackson, Annie Lennox and many more explored androgyny and ambiguous sexuality both in their public personas and their performance.
More recently, in the 21st century, themes dealing with the new ways of looking at and expressing gender along with the increased visibility of transgender individuals are as present in galleries as they are in the tabloid press. David Bowie in his persona of Ziggy Startdust — Bowie was know as an avid art collector The HIV Pandemic and Beyond On a more grim note, the HIV pandemic has been an ill-looking shadow to the otherwise positive and progressive aspects of the sexual revolution.
It created a mass hysteria in the media and spread fear among the general population.
Popular culture - Wikipedia
Along with thousands of other lives, the disease took such avant-garde performers as Klaus Nomi and Leigh Bowery, as well as one of the biggest rock stars in the world, Freddie Mercury. It is no wonder then that the outbreak of HIV and its consequences made a shockwave through the art world, inspiring many artists to create new, moving, insightful, often warning images.
Whatever we were taught to believe, we now can see that our reality as a whole is a developing one, in a constant state of flux, and that some issues need to be readdressed over and over again — in politics, in the media, and the arts — before they are truly dealt with.
The renewed need to stand up to racial prejudice and explore the causes of it is an obvious example of such unfinished business. Nicholas Nixon — Dr. Robert Sappenfield with his son Bob, Dorchester, Race Vs Culture Race, ethnicity and culture are some of the most crucial concepts not only in the field of sociology, but also in contemporary society. In its primary meaning, race is a classification of people according to their physical traits and geographic ancestry.