Or are resource consumption rates in the North a key problem? . The dynamics of the environment-population-development relationship result in different . In addition, projects to change environmentally unsound practices or improve. should signal a call for action concerning resource use and management. nations is unrealistic for the developing nations, based both on projections of because of continuing population growth and rapid land degradation (Leach, ). Impacts of growth in resource use and human population on the Nechako The Kemano project of the Aluminum Company of Canada Ltd. begun in , was.
In some developed countries, a stable but aging population can pose challenges for the economy and health system. It also has an impact on economic development. Reproductive health services and family planning are sorely needed but should be offered in a non-coercive environment, the authors say.
The cost to provide that to all who need it: The authors summarize their conclusions — and their hopes — in nine recommendations: The international community must bring the 1. This will require focused efforts in key policy areas including economic development, education, family planning and health. The most developed and the emerging economies must stabilize and then reduce material consumption levels through dramatic improvements in resource use efficiency, including reducing waste; investment in sustainable resources, technologies and infrastructures; and systematically decoupling economic activity from environmental impact.
Reproductive health and voluntary family planning programs urgently require political leadership and financial commitment, both nationally and internationally. This is needed to continue the downward trajectory of fertility rates, especially in countries where the unmet need for contraception is high. Population and the environment should not be considered as two separate issues.
Governments should realize the potential of urbanization to reduce material consumption and environmental impact through efficiency measures. The well planned provision of water supply, waste disposal, power and other services will avoid slum conditions and increase the welfare of inhabitants. Natural and social scientists need to increase their research efforts on the interactions between consumption, demographic change and environmental impact.
They have a unique and vital role in developing a fuller picture of the problems, the uncertainties found in all such analyses, the efficacy of potential solutions, and providing an open, trusted source of information for policy makers and the public. National governments should accelerate the development of comprehensive wealth measures.
This should include reforms to the system of national accounts, and improvement in natural asset accounting.Overpopulation – The Human Explosion Explained
Managing Distribution and Mobility Population distribution across a country's different regions is influenced by the geographical spread of economic activity and opportunity.
Most countries are committed in theory to balancing regional development, but are rarely able to do this in practice. Governments able to spread employment opportunities throughout their nations and especially through their countrysides will thus limit the rapid and often uncontrolled growth of one or two cities.
China's effort to support village-level industries in the countryside is perhaps the most ambitious of this sort of national programme. Migration from countryside to city is not in itself a bad thing; it is part of the process of economic development and diversification.
The issue is not so much the overall rural urban shift but the distribution of urban growth between large metropolitan cities and smaller urban settlements.
A commitment to rural development implies more attention to realizing the development potential of all regions, particularly those that are ecologically disadvantaged See Chapter 6. This would help reduce migration from these areas due to lack of opportunities. But governments should avoid going too far in the opposite direction, encouraging people to cove into sparsely populated areas such as tropical moist forests, where the land may not be able to provide sustainable livelihoods.
Demographic phenomena constitute the heart of the African Development problematique. They are the data that lead most analysts to project a continuing and deepening crisis in Africa. There is no doubt of the imperative and urgent need for a far reaching population policy to be adopted and vigorously implemented by African governments.
One issue of relevance that requires further research is the use of the tax system as a means for controlling population growth and discouraging rural-urban migration. To slow down population growth, should families without children be given a tax incentive or tax break? Should a tax penalty be imposed for each child after a fixed number of children, considering that the tax system has not solved the population migration problem? From Liability to Asset When a population exceeds the carrying capacity of the available resources, it can become a liability in efforts to improve people's welfare.
But talking of population just as numbers glosses over an important point: People are also a creative resource, and this creativity is an asset societies must tap. To nurture and enhance that asset, people's physical well-being must be improved through better nutrition, health care, and so on.
And education must be provided to help them become more capable and creative, skilful, productive, and better able to deal with day-to-day problems.
Population, Consumption and the Future
All this has to be achieved through access to and participation in the processes of sustainable development. I noticed that you have tried to separate religion from the technological side of life.
Is that not exactly, the mistake in the West in developing technology, without ethics, without religion? If that is the case, and we have the chance to develop a new direction, should we not advise the group on technology to pursue a different kind of technology which has as its base not only the rationality, but also the spiritual aspect?
Is this a dream or is this something we cannot avoid? Good health is the foundation of human welfare and productivity.
Population and environment: a global challenge - Curious
Hence a broad-based health policy is essential for sustainable development. In the developing world, the critical problems of ill health are closely related to environmental conditions and development problems. Malaria is the most important parasitic disease in the tropics, and its prevalence is closely related to wastewater disposal and drainage.
Large dams and irrigation systems have led to sharp increases in the incidence of schistosomiasis snail fever in many areas.
Population and environment: a global challenge
Inadequacies in water supply and sanitation are direct causes of other widespread and debilitating diseases such as diarrhoeas and various worm infestations. Though much has been achieved in recent years, 1. In this sense, they really require a developmental solution.
In the developing world, the number of water taps nearby is a better indication of the health of a community than is the number of hospital beds.
Other examples of links between development, environmental conditions, and health include air pollution and the respiratory illnesses it brings, the impact of housing conditions on the spread of tuberculosis, the effects of carcinogens and toxic substances, and the exposure to hazards in the workplace and elsewhere.
Many health problems arise from the nutritional deficiencies that occur in virtually all developing countries, but most acutely in low-income areas. Most malnutrition is related to a shortage of calories or protein or both, but some diets also lack specific elements and compounds, such as iron and iodine. Health will be greatly improved in low-income areas by policies that lead to the production of more of the cheap foods the poor traditionally eat - coarse grains and root crops.
These health, nutrition, environment, and development links imply that health policy cannot be conceived of purely in terms of curative or preventive medicine, or even in terms of greater attention to public health. Integrated approaches are needed that reflect key health objectives in areas such as food production; water supply and sanitation: Beyond this, it is necessary to identify vulnerable groups and their health risks and to ensure that the socio-economic factors that underlie these risks are taken into account in other areas of development policy.
WHO's 'Health for All' strategy should be broadened far beyond the provision of medical workers and clinics, to cover health-related interventions in all development activities. Within the narrower area of health care, providing primary health care facilities and making sure that everyone has the opportunity to use them are appropriate starting points.
Maternal and child health care are also particularly important.