Insulin - Wikipedia
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 9 See also; 10 References; 11 Further reading; 12 External links. Potassium, glucose, and insulin treatment for acute myocardial infarction. . Relation between serum free fatty acids and arrhythmias and death after acute (PAI-1) activity and proinsulin-like molecules independently of glycemic control. Blood glucose levels and potassium share a complex relationship. Certain complications of diabetes, including diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia, involve.
Well, in this situation, since there's nothing to bind to these receptors, the glucose channels won't be opened up, and the glucose will not be able to enter into the cell. And this situation is type 1 diabetes, where you've got glucose. So in theory, you have energy and you have properly-functioning insulin receptors, but you just don't have insulin to unlock the gates for the glucose-- for the glucose to actually go into the cell.
The other scenario you could imagine happening-- let me draw the cell again.
So there is my cell and let me draw the blood flowing past the cell. And once again, obviously, this is just one of trillions of cells in the human body. We have an estimated 10 to trillion cells. So this is a very simple diagram, but, hopefully, it gets the point across.
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So once again, let me draw some glucose floating by. Let me draw some insulin receptors on the cell.
Insulin receptor there, maybe an insulin receptor right over there. And let's say we even have some insulin. Our pancreas is producing insulin and putting it into our bloodstream. So it's there to be used. But a situation can arise where the receptors are not working properly or we become insensitive or desensitized to insulin.
So in this situation-- sometimes maybe it might be the insulin is hard to bind or, even if it does bind, it's not working properly. So the glucose will not enter the cell. I already wrote desensitized.
So in either one of these scenarios-- let's just think in a very broad level. I'm not going to go into the details of the actual therapy for these diseases of how it can be cured.
Oh, and I didn't even name the second one. The second one right here, as you can imagine, if this up here is type 1 diabetes, this down here is type 2 diabetes.
The simple way that-- I don't want to say that it's necessarily simple, but the way that you could manage type 1 diabetes is you can inject insulin. The only problem here-- it's a big one, though, is that there's no insulin in the bloodstream. Everything else is working properly.
However, by increasing your potassium intake while on insulin, you can prevent a potassium deficiency while also improving your sensitivity to insulin and increasing the effectiveness of the drug, according to the Global Diabetes Community. Potassium-Rich Foods Increasing potassium intake may benefit you if you have diabetes or another disorder causing high blood glucose levels.
Many foods that are high in potassium, including fruits, vegetables, legumes and dairy, are also good sources of another important electrolyte for diabetics -- magnesium.
Glucose insulin and diabetes (video) | Khan Academy
However, some potassium-rich foods also rate high on the glycemic index, meaning you should avoid them if your body has problems regulating blood glucose. Fruits and veggies are generally good sources of potassium for people with diabetes, although fruit juice and starchy vegetables such as potatoes, corn and peas should be avoided.
Some potassium-rich foods suitable to eat if you have diabetes include beans, yogurt, nuts, salmon, tomatoes and spinach. Blood Pressure Medications Diuretics prescribed for high blood pressure may cause high blood glucose levels in conjunction with potassium deficiency. Even insulin from some species of fish is similar enough to human to be clinically effective in humans.
Insulin in some invertebrates is quite similar in sequence to human insulin, and has similar physiological effects. The strong homology seen in the insulin sequence of diverse species suggests that it has been conserved across much of animal evolutionary history. The C-peptide of proinsulin discussed laterhowever, differs much more among species; it is also a hormone, but a secondary one.
Insulin and Potassium
SS-linked insulin monomer The primary structure of bovine insulin was first determined by Frederick Sanger in The hexamer is an inactive form with long-term stability, which serves as a way to keep the highly reactive insulin protected, yet readily available. The hexamer-monomer conversion is one of the central aspects of insulin formulations for injection.
The hexamer is far more stable than the monomer, which is desirable for practical reasons; however, the monomer is a much faster-reacting drug because diffusion rate is inversely related to particle size. A fast-reacting drug means insulin injections do not have to precede mealtimes by hours, which in turn gives people with diabetes more flexibility in their daily schedules. This can cause injection amyloidosisand prevents the storage of insulin for long periods.