It covers the aspects of both, social mobility between parents and children and of Due to the increasing importance of income inequality and poverty issues in Poverty rate: The poverty rate is the ratio of the number of people (in a given age .. have been provided to the OECD by national data providers, and is based on . In Section 3, the relationship between poverty and inequality is established. degree of concentration and, on the other, the degree of gender inequality. .. based on other explanatory variables of the individual/household. Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically Social inequality linked to economic inequality, usually described on the . or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, . which in turn can lead to cycles of poverty and political marginalization.
Those two classes are defined as the owners of the means of production and those who sell their labour to the owners of the means of production.
In capitalistic societies, the two classifications represent the opposing social interests of its members, capital gain for the capitalists and good wages for the labourers, creating social conflict. Max Weber uses social classes to examine wealth and status.
For him, social class is strongly associated with prestige and privileges. It may explain social reproduction, the tendency of social classes to remain stable across generations maintaining most of their inequalities as well. Such inequalities include differences in income, wealth, access to education, pension levels, social status, socioeconomic safety-net.
Each of these classes can be further subdivided into smaller classes e. Occupation is the primary determinant of a person class since it affects their lifestyle, opportunities, culture, and kind of people one associates with.
Class based families include the lower class who are the poor in the society. They have limited opportunities.
Inequality as Determinant of the Persistence of Poverty
Working class are those people in blue-collar jobs and usually, affects the economic level of a nation. The Middle classes are those who rely mostly on wives' employment and depends on credits from the bank and medical coverage. The upper middle class are professionals who are strong because of economic resources and supportive institutions.
Social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of society about social class, wealth, political influence. A society can be politically stratified based on authority and power, economically stratified based on income level and wealth, occupational stratification about one's occupation.
Some roles for examples doctors, engineers, lawyers are highly ranked, and thus they give orders while the rest receive the orders. Castes system usually ascribed to children during birth whereby one receives the same stratification as of that of their parents. The caste system has been linked to religion and thus permanent. The stratification may be superior or inferior and thus influences the occupation and the social roles assigned to a person.
Estate system is a state or society where people in this state were required to work on their land to receive some services like military protection. Communities ranked according to the nobility of their lords. The class system is about income inequality and socio-political status.
People can move the classes when they increase their level of income or if they have authority. People are expected to maximize their innate abilities and possessions.
In a given society, the distribution of individual or household accumulation of wealth tells us more about variation in well-being than does income, alone. A better measure at that level, however, is the Gini coefficienta measure of statistical dispersion used to represent the distribution of a specific quantity, such as income or wealth, at a global level, among a nation's residents, or even within a metropolitan area.
When researchers use quantitative variables such as income or wealth to measure inequality, on an examination of the data, patterns are found that indicate these other social variables contribute to income or wealth as intervening variables. Significant inequalities in income and wealth are found when specific socially defined categories of people are compared. It is to say that these other socially defined characteristics can, and often do, intervene in the valuation of merit.
Gender inequality[ edit ] Gender as a social inequality is whereby women and men are treated differently due to masculinity and femininity by dividing labor, assigning roles, and responsibilities and allocating social rewards. Sex- and gender-based prejudice and discriminationcalled sexismare major contributing factors to social inequality.
Most societies, even agricultural oneshave some sexual division of labour and gender-based division of labour tends to increase during industrialization. Women are underrepresented in political activities and decision making processes in most states in both the Global North and Global South. These discussions seek to identify and remedy widespread, institutionalized barriers to access for women in their societies.
By making use of gender analysisresearchers try to understand the social expectations, responsibilities, resources and priorities of women and men within a specific context, examining the social, economic and environmental factors which influence their roles and decision-making capacity. By enforcing artificial separations between the social and economic roles of men and women, the lives of women and girls are negatively impacted and this can have the effect of limiting social and economic development.
Transgender and gender-variant persons may express their gender through their appearance, the statements they make, or official documents they present. This effect can be seen in the corporate and bureaucratic environments of many countries, lowering the chances of women to excel. It prevents women from succeeding and making the maximum use of their potential, which is at a cost for women as well as the society's development.
Once able to work, women should be titled to the same job security and safe working environments as men. While first-wave Liberal Feminist initiatives raised awareness about the lack of fundamental rights and freedoms that women have access to, second-wave feminism see also Radical Feminism highlighted the structural forces that underlie gender-based violence. Masculinities are generally constructed so as to subordinate femininities and other expressions of gender that are not heterosexual, assertive and dominant.
These structures of masculinity ultimately contribute to the vast amounts of gendered violence, marginalization and suppression that women, queer, transgender, gender variant and gender non-conforming persons face.
Some scholars suggest that women's underrepresentation in political systems speaks the idea that "formal citizenship does not always imply full social membership".
Others point out that patriarchal states tend top scale and claw back their social policies relative to the disadvantage of women.
Racial and ethnic inequality[ edit ] Racial or ethnic inequality is the result of hierarchical social distinctions between racial and ethnic categories within a society and often established based on characteristics such as skin color and other physical characteristics or an individual's place of origin or culture.
- Social and welfare issues
Racism is whereby some races are more privileged and are allowed to venture into the labor market and are better compensated than others. Ethnicity is the privilege one enjoys for belonging to a particular ethnic group.
Even though race has no biological connection, it has become a socially constructed category capable of restricting or enabling social status. Racial inequality can also result in diminished opportunities for members of marginalized groups, which in turn can lead to cycles of poverty and political marginalization.
Racial and ethnic categories become a minority category in a society. Minority members in such a society are often subjected to discriminatory actions resulting from majority policies, including assimilationexclusion, oppressionexpulsionand extermination. Over a million African Americans are incarcerated in the US, many of whom have been convicted of a non-violent drug possession charge.
Age inequality[ edit ] Age discrimination is defined as the unfair treatment of people with regard to promotions, recruitment, resources, or privileges because of their age.
It is also known as ageism: It is a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify age-based prejudice, discrimination, and subordination. While some people may benefit or enjoy these practices, some find them offensive and discriminatory.
Discrimination against those under the age of 40 however is not illegal under the current U. Virtually every society has age-stratificationmeaning that the age structure in a society changes as people begin to live longer and the population becomes older. In most cultures, there are different social role expectations for people of different ages to perform.
Every society manages people's ageing by allocating certain roles for different age groups. Age discrimination primarily occurs when age is used as an unfair criterion for allocating more or less resources. Scholars of age inequality have suggested that certain social organizations favor particular age inequalities.
However, more recently, in the United States the tendency is for the young to be most disadvantaged. For example, poverty levels in the U. The larger contributor to this, however is the increase in the number of people over 65 receiving Social Security and Medicare benefits in the U.
When we compare income distribution among youth across the globe, we find that about half This means that, out of the three billion persons under the age of 24 in the world as ofapproximately 1. Moving up the income distribution ladder, children and youth do not fare much better: For the just over million youth who are fortunate enough to rank among families or situations at the top of the income distribution, however, opportunities improve greatly with more than 60 percent of global income within their reach.
Social inequality - Wikipedia
That is to say, there is a lack of appropriate data on welfare that allow a proper understanding of the phenomena of poverty and inequality. The second reason derives from the previous one, in the sense that before measuring, it is necessary to understand the relationship between inequality and poverty in order to make adequate use of the measuring instruments and thus to implement public policies aimed at reducing the adverse effects of these. As the objective of the chapter is to establish the relationship between inequality and poverty, in order to observe why poverty persists, we must recognize the multidimensional nature of both phenomena.
In that sense, it is noted that both inequality and poverty refer to lack of an attribute. However, they differ in the access and comparison of the attribute. In terms of access, inequality implies that the individual clearly recognizes whether or not he or she has the enjoyment of access to equal use of the benefits derived from the reference attribute.
That is, when speaking of access a right to the individual is implicitly recognized. Hence, when he does not perceive this equal access, he feels dispossessed, decreased, at a disadvantage compared to others; because he feels he is worthy of receiving the same treatment or the same amount of the attribute, given that he thinks he is part of something that merits him to enjoy the access of the attribute in question.
In the case of poverty, access is not taken into account; it is only evaluated if the lack or insufficiency that the person experiences with respect to the chosen attribute is below the threshold or minimum amount necessary for him to be considered as poor.
In relation to comparison, in inequality the person confronts others with the enjoyment of access to equal use of the reference attribute; on the other hand, in poverty it is made between the chosen magnitude that has the person of the attribute and the established threshold.
Income Inequality and Poverty - OECD
In other words, inequality implies interpersonal comparison or between people regarding their access to the attribute. So inequality encompasses all the human beings of a society, while poverty individualizes. As the whole contains the individual, poverty is immersed in inequality.
According to Coudouel et al. Hence, inequality is a broader concept because it encompasses the entire population, along with the distribution of some attribute among the members of the population, and not just those below the threshold, which are the ones in the lower part of the distribution of the chosen attribute [ 40 ].
Therefore, as inequality contains poverty, poverty persists because inequality exists. However, to be able to attack both phenomena it is necessary to identify the causes of each one. Now, the persistence of poverty is explained by multiple causes such as insignificant provision of land, limited access to public goods and different forms of discrimination [ 12 ], inadequate schooling [ 41 ], precarious social protection system [ 42 ], poor institutional structure, lack of opportunities, income inequality [ 43 ], chronic unemployment, inadequate access to markets that have the most disadvantaged populations [ 44 ], poor health, domestic and external factors, corrupt governments and elites, even the regime implemented by a State influences the persistence of poverty [ 45 ].
Once the causes of inequality and poverty are identified, it is pertinent to identify their consequences. In that sense, the main consequence of inequality is poverty, which in turn has consequences such as hunger, uncertainty, impotence, suicide, lack of voice, social isolation, resistance, deprivation, corruption, abuses of dignity, humiliation, lack of access to basic infrastructure, 14 dependency, begging, shame, illiteracy, disease, crime, households disintegration, 15 breach of social norms, creating disorder, and violence both at household level and at the regional and national level [ 46 ].
Therefore, the overcoming of both issues is in the field of design and implementation of social policies. This implies taking into account aspects related to the degree of access and control over economic and social assets such as education, health, taxes [ 47 ], labor, land, productive resources, social and civic participation, security and justice [ 31 ]. Nevertheless, the implementation of these policies may find obstacles and put in tension certain hegemonic actors and blocks within a society, since the policies touch social and political interests, which can cause that what is socially desirable does not materialize in certain political regimes.
Narayan and Petesch [ 13 ] point out that a liberal regime which gives the State a minimum welfare role is associated with high rates of persistent poverty. Proof of this is that when they began to fall back redistributive consequences were clearly adverse.
However, he warns that currently these schemes are considered adverse to economic goals rather than complementary. Then, poverty and inequality are connected by multiple aspects. However, there is a preponderant: This is explained because people receive from employment the income to purchase the goods and services to meet their needs. Consequently, people flee to both inequality and poverty. This happens because in the course of mankind, it has been obscured human being right to access to live better and he has been forced to accept living in mere subsistence conditions.
We must remember that equality has to do with the enjoyment of access to equal use of the attribute or rightbut as in the case of poverty there is no right, the human being that lives in it becomes accustomed, unwittingly, to live without such a right. That is why he does not see relevant to defend his right to live in a more egalitarian society, which would lead to reduce his poverty. So, there is a kind of submissive acceptance and tolerance of inequality that, despite supporting it, unknowingly, he sinks more in this poverty.
A fact that diverts attention from what has been commenting is temporary declines in poverty rates due to improvements in economic growth. There will be a strong relationship when both the same attributes are analyzed, for example, the income. Instead, there will be a weak relationship when different attributes are analyzed, for example, in poverty the income is evaluated while in inequality the gender.