Social Darwinist notions of race fitness. The main relationship between the need by South African mining capital for the except in relation to mining interests. was a terrific rationalisation for imperialism and the conquest of Africa [see (3) Glorifying the benefits of competition and struggle; social darwinists saw this . link of Quebec nationalism with ultramontanism has largely been lost since Scientific racism is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists Links to scholarly websites about "race science" by Nizkor Project The Mis- portrayal of Darwin as a Racist – Refutes claims that Institute for the study of academic racism (ISAR) · Race, Science, and Social Policy.
He published a monograph on Negroes in He claimed that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathismwhich he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape.
He also claimed that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negroes have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.
Historical definitions of race a lateth-century illustration by H. Strickland Constable shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic" The scientific classification established by Carl Linnaeus is requisite to any human racial classification scheme. In the 19th century, unilineal evolution a. The proposal that social status is unilineal—from primitive to civilized, from agricultural to industrial—became popular among philosophers, including Friedrich HegelImmanuel Kantand Auguste Comte.
The Christian Bible was interpreted to sanction slavery and from the s to the s was often used in the antebellum Southern United Statesby writers such as the Rev. Richard Furman and Thomas R.
Cobbto enforce the idea that Negroes had been created inferior, and thus suited to slavery. The extended wording on the title page, which adds by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, uses the general term " races " as an alternative for " varieties " and does not carry the modern connotation of human races. The first use in the book refers to "the several races, for instance, of the cabbage" and proceeds to a discussion of "the hereditary varieties or races of our domestic animals and plants".
It may be doubted whether any character can be named, which is distinctive of a race and is constant As it is improbable that the numerous, and unimportant, points of resemblance, between the several races of man, in bodily structure and mental faculties I do not here refer to similar customs should all have been independently acquired, they must have been inherited from progenitors who had these same characters. Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics and Racism in Germanyclaims: Darwin clearly believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination.
In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races".
Apart from the plain meaning of the words, they assert "there is nothing in Darwin's words to support and much in his life to contradict any claim that Darwin wanted the 'lower' or 'savage races' to be exterminated.
He was merely noting what appeared to him to be factual, based in no small part on the evidence of a European binge of imperialism and colonial conquest during his lifetime". The great break in the organic chain between man and his nearest allies, which cannot be bridged over by any extinct or living species, has often been advanced as a grave objection to the belief that man is descended from some lower form; but this objection will not appear of much weight to those who, from general reasons, believe in the general principle of evolution.
Breaks often occur in all parts of the series, some being wide, sharp and defined, others less so in various degrees; as between the orang and its nearest allies—between the Tarsius and the other Lemuridae between the elephant, and in a more striking manner between the Ornithorhynchus or Echidnaand all other mammals.
Social Darwinism in the Gilded Age
But these breaks depend merely on the number of related forms which have become extinct. At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace, the savage races throughout the world.
At the same time the anthropomorphous apes, as Professor Schaaffhausen has remarked, will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his nearest allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilised state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a babooninstead of as now between the negro or Australian and the gorilla.
Like most of his contemporaries, except the naturalist Alfred Russel Wallacehe did not distinguish "biological race" from "cultural race". Moreover, he noted that savage races risked extinction more from white European colonialismthan from evolutionary inadequacy. There is, however, no doubt that the various races, when carefully compared and measured, differ much from each other,—as in the texture of the hair, the relative proportions of all parts of the body, the capacity of the lungs, the form and capacity of the skull, and even in the convolutions of the brain.
But it would be an endless task to specify the numerous points of structural difference.
Social Darwinism - Wikipedia
The races differ also in constitution, in acclimatisation, and in liability to certain diseases. Their mental characteristics are likewise very distinct; chiefly as it would appear in their emotional, but partly in their intellectual, faculties. Every one who has had the opportunity of comparison, must have been struck with the contrast between the taciturn, even morose, aborigines of S.
America and the light-hearted, talkative negroes. There is a nearly similar contrast between the Malays and the Papuans, who live under the same physical conditions, and are separated from each other only by a narrow space of sea.
He claimed that "The white race originally possessed the monopoly of beauty, intelligence and strength" and that any positive accomplishments or thinking of blacks and Asians were due to an admixture with whites. His works were praised by many white supremacist American pro-slavery thinkers such as Josiah C. Nott and Henry Hotze. Gobineau believed that the different races originated in different areas, the white race had originated somewhere in Siberia, the Asians in the Americas and the blacks in Africa.
He believed that the white race was superior, writing: I will not wait for the friends of equality to show me such and such passages in books written by missionaries or sea captains, who declare some Wolof is a fine carpenter, some Hottentot a good servant, that a Kaffir dances and plays the violin, that some Bambara knows arithmetic… Let us leave aside these puerilities and compare together not men, but groups.
They played a key role in the master race theory of Nazism. Karl Vogt Another polygenist evolutionist was Karl Vogt — who believed that the Negro race was related to the ape. He wrote the white race was a separate species to Negroes. In Chapter VII of his lectures of man he compared the Negro to the white race whom he described as "two extreme human types".
The difference between them, he claimed are greater than those between two species of ape; and this proves that Negroes are a separate species from the whites. These separate languages had completed the transition from animals to man, and, under the influence of each main branch of languages, humans had evolved as separate species, which could be subdivided into races.
Haeckel divided human beings into ten races, of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction. Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa.
Haeckel also believed Negroes were savages and that whites were the most civilised. Such institutional racism was effected via Phrenologytelling character from physiognomy; craniometric skull and skeleton studies; thus skulls and skeletons of black people and other colored volk, were displayed between apes and white men. The most influential theorists included the anthropologist Georges Vacher de Lapouge — who proposed "anthroposociology"; and Johann Gottfried Herder —who applied "race" to nationalist theory, thereby developing the first conception of ethnic nationalism.
InErnest Renan contradicted Herder with a nationalism based upon the "will to live together", not founded upon ethnic or racial prerequisites. Scientific racist discourse posited the historical existence of "national races" such as the Deutsche Volk in Germany, and the "French race" being a branch of the basal " Aryan race " extant for millennia, to advocate for geopolitical borders parallel to the racial ones.
But before he wrote, it was used only on rare occasions; he made it a standard shorthand for a complex of late-nineteenth-century ideas, a familiar part of the lexicon of social thought. As such, social Darwinism has been criticized for being an inconsistent philosophy, which does not lead to any clear political conclusions. Part of the difficulty in establishing sensible and consistent usage is that commitment to the biology of natural selection and to 'survival of the fittest' entailed nothing uniform either for sociological method or for political doctrine.
A 'social Darwinist' could just as well be a defender of laissez-faire as a defender of state socialism, just as much an imperialist as a domestic eugenist.
The process includes competition between individuals for limited resources, popularly but inaccurately described by the phrase " survival of the fittest ", a term coined by sociologist Herbert Spencer. Creationists have often maintained that Social Darwinism—leading to policies designed to reward the most competitive—is a logical consequence of "Darwinism" the theory of natural selection in biology.
While the term has been applied to the claim that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection can be used to understand the social endurance of a nation or country, Social Darwinism commonly refers to ideas that predate Darwin's publication of On the Origin of Species.
Others whose ideas are given the label include the 18th century clergyman Thomas Malthusand Darwin's cousin Francis Galton who founded eugenics towards the end of the 19th century. The expansion of the British Empire fitted in with the broader notion of social Darwinism used from the s onwards to account for the remarkable and universal phenomenon of "the Anglo-Saxon overflowing his boundaries", as phrased by the late-Victorian sociologist Benjamin Kidd in Social Evolution, published in However, Spencer's major work, Progress: In The Social OrganismSpencer compares society to a living organism and argues that, just as biological organisms evolve through natural selection, society evolves and increases in complexity through analogous processes.
Jeff Riggenbach argues that Spencer's view was that culture and education made a sort of Lamarckism possible  and notes that Herbert Spencer was a proponent of private charity. While Malthus's work does not itself qualify as social Darwinism, his work An Essay on the Principle of Population, was incredibly popular and widely read by social Darwinists. In that book, for example, the author argued that as an increasing population would normally outgrow its food supply, this would result in the starvation of the weakest and a Malthusian catastrophe.
Malthus himself anticipated the social Darwinists in suggesting that charity could exacerbate social problems. Another of these social interpretations of Darwin's biological views, later known as eugenics, was put forth by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in and Galton argued that just as physical traits were clearly inherited among generations of people, the same could be said for mental qualities genius and talent.
Galton argued that social morals needed to change so that heredity was a conscious decision in order to avoid both the over-breeding by less fit members of society and the under-breeding of the more fit ones.
Francis Galton In Galton's view, social institutions such as welfare and insane asylums were allowing inferior humans to survive and reproduce at levels faster than the more "superior" humans in respectable society, and if corrections were not soon taken, society would be awash with "inferiors".
Darwin read his cousin's work with interest, and devoted sections of Descent of Man to discussion of Galton's theories. Neither Galton nor Darwin, though, advocated any eugenic policies restricting reproduction, due to their Whiggish distrust of government. Nietzsche's point of view on sickness and health, in particular, opposed him to the concept of biological adaptation as forged by Spencer's "fitness".
Nietzsche criticized Haeckel, Spencer, and Darwin, sometimes under the same banner by maintaining that in specific cases, sickness was necessary and even helpful.
Wherever progress is to ensue, deviating natures are of greatest importance. Every progress of the whole must be preceded by a partial weakening. The strongest natures retain the type, the weaker ones help to advance it.
In Origin and in his subsequent writing Darwin offered a revolutionary scientific theory: Darwin pointed to fossil records, among other evidence, in support of his theory. Social Darwinism Soon, some sociologists and others were taking up words and ideas which Darwin had used to describe the biological world, and they were adopting them to their own ideas and theories about the human social world.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, these Social Darwinists took up the language of evolution to frame an understanding of the growing gulf between the rich and the poor as well as the many differences between cultures all over the world.
Photograph of Herbert Spencer.
Scientific racism - Wikipedia
Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons. Social Darwinism, poverty, and eugenics Social Darwinian language like this extended into theories of race and racism, eugenics, the claimed national superiority of one people over another, and immigration law.
Many sociologists and political theorists turned to Social Darwinism to argue against government programs to aid the poor, as they believed that poverty was the result of natural inferiority, which should be bred out of the human population.
As a massive number of immigrants came to the United States during the Second Industrial Revolution, white, Anglo-Saxon Americans viewed these newcomers—who differed from earlier immigrants in that they were less likely to speak English and more likely to be Catholic or Jewish rather than Protestant—with disdain.
Many whites believed that these new immigrantswho hailed from Eastern or Southern Europe, were racially inferior and consequently "less evolved" than immigrants from England, Ireland, or Germany.