Torah versus Talmud?: Chumash - Misc. Response on Ask the Rabbi
This article looks at The Talmud and its history. The Mishnah is the original written version of the oral law and the Gemara is the record of Between the 2nd and 5th centuries CE these rabbinic discussions about the Mishnah of many of the Yeshivot (institutions for the study of the Torah) in the country. The Talmud presents the oral Torah, which Jews believe was given by God, at the The Talmud is a written text that combines the Mishnah and Gemara; it was . The Book of Mormon can help you build a relationship with God. . What is the difference between Torah, Tanakh, Talmud, Midrash, Mishnah, and other similar .
For example, the fourth of the Ten Commandmentsordains, "Remember the Sabbath day to make it holy" Exodus From the Sabbath's inclusion in the Ten Commandments, it is clear that the Torah regards it as an important holiday. Yet when one looks for the specific biblical laws regulating how to observe the day, one finds only injunctions against lighting a fire, going away from one's dwelling, cutting down a tree, plowing and harvesting.
Would merely refraining from these few activities fulfill the biblical command to make the Sabbath holy? Indeed, the Sabbath rituals that are most commonly associated with holiness-lighting of candles, reciting the kiddush, and the reading of the weekly Torah portion are found not in the Torah, but in the Oral Law. Without an oral tradition, some of the Torah's laws would be incomprehensible.
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In the Shema 's first paragraph, the Bible instructs: And you shall teach them diligently to your children, and you shall talk of them when you sit in your house, when you walk on the road, when you lie down and when you rise up. And you shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.
The Torah doesn't say. Only in the Oral Law do we learn that what a Jewish male should bind upon his hand and between his eyes are tefillin phylacteries. Finally, an Oral Law was needed to mitigate certain categorical Torah laws that would have caused grave problems if carried out literally.
The Written Law, for example, demands an "eye for an eye" Exodus Did this imply that if one person accidentally blinded another, he should be blinded in return? That seems to be the Torah's wish. But the Oral Law explains that the verse must be understood as requiring monetary compensation: Well over a million Jews were killed in the two ill-fated uprisings, and the leading yeshivot, along with thousands of their rabbinical scholars and students, were devastated.
This decline in the number of knowledgeable Jews seems to have been a decisive factor in Rabbi Judah the Prince's decision around the year C. For centuries, Judaism's leading rabbis had resisted writing down the Oral Law.
Teaching the law orally, the rabbis knew, compelled students to maintain close relationships with teachers, and they considered teachers, not books, to be the best conveyors of the Jewish tradition. But with the deaths of so many teachers in the failed revolts, Rabbi Judah apparently feared that the Oral Law would be forgotten unless it were written down.What Is The Talmud And What Is The Torah?
In the Mishna, the name for the sixty-three tractates in which Rabbi Judah set down the Oral LawJewish law is systematically codified, unlike in the Torah. For example, if a person wanted to find every law in the Torah about the Sabbathhe would have to locate scattered references in ExodusLeviticusand Numbers.
The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the yearalthough it continued to be edited later. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud.
Torah versus Talmud?
While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently; Louis Jacobs writes, "If the editors of either had had access to an actual text of the other, it is inconceivable that they would not have mentioned this. Here the argument from silence is very convincing. Jerusalem Talmud A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza The Jerusalem Talmud, also known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael Talmud of the Land of Israelwas one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel.
It is written largely in Jewish Palestinian Aramaica Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart.
Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel.
It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi "Jerusalem Talmud"but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem. It has more accurately been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel".
By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. InConstantine the Greatthe first Christian emperor, said "let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd.
The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud consequently lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended. The text is evidently incomplete and is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhahformal scholarly ordination.
Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land.
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It was also an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacobwith the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides.
Following the formation of the modern state of Israel there is some interest in restoring Eretz Yisrael traditions.
For example, rabbi David Bar-Hayim of the Makhon Shilo institute has issued a siddur reflecting Eretz Yisrael practice as found in the Jerusalem Talmud and other sources. Babylonian Talmud[ edit ] A full set of the Babylonian Talmud The Babylonian Talmud Talmud Bavli consists of documents compiled over the period of late antiquity 3rd to 5th centuries.
The work begun by Rav Ashi was completed by Ravina, who is traditionally regarded as the final Amoraic expounder. Rabbi Yehudah wrote the Mishnah in code form, so that students would still require the explanation of a rabbi — since this information was meant to remain oral.
In CE, the Jewish people again suffered an uprooting of their communities, and two Babylonian rabbis — Rav Ashi and Ravina — compiled a volume record of rabbinic discussions on the Mishnah, called the "Gemara.
Much of this material is also contained in the Talmud. The Oral Torah also includes the works of Kabbalah, a tradition of mystical secrets of the metaphysical universe received by Moses at Mount Sinai. Torah is not to be regarded, however, as an academic field of study. It is meant to be applied to all aspects of our everyday life — speech, food, prayer, etc.
Over the centuries great rabbis have compiled summaries of practical law from the Talmud. I hope this helps solve your confusion. Now only one thing remains — to go out and learn the entire Torah!