The challenge of analyzing the phenomenon of white-collar crime lies in the . of the crime itself, the perpetrator, the relationship to the victim, and the street crime pales in many ways when compared with white-collar crime. PDF | Public perceptions of white-collar crime have shifted from indifference to well as the relationship between gender of the offender and the respondent's. White-collar crime refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals.
The definition impacts what questions are asked, what kinds of answers are meaningful, and where researchers look for the answers to those questions. Depending on how one goes about deciding what to study in attempting to understand white-collar crime, one can either conclude that it is a form of conduct peculiar to offenders of high status enjoying positions of trust, as Sutherland seemed to feel, or one may arrive at a different conclusion if the research is confined to those convicted of federal offenses traditionally thought of as white-collar crime.
The offender-based definition seemed to serve sociologists well as a way to label and talk about offenses committed by successful, healthy people who were not suffering from the deficits of poor surroundings, lack of education, and all the other attributes that had come to be associated with perpetrators of violent street crime. It helped explain why well-educated people who had ample access to societal resources members of respectable society could resort to crime as a means of achieving the goals they should logically have been able to achieve without violating the law.
Sutherland saw four main factors at play here: These definitions work well when discussing why white-collar crime occurs or who commits it, but they are not as well suited to asking questions about how much white-collar crime is occurring or whether prevention methods are working. Edelhertz identified four main types of white-collar offending: The Federal Bureau of Investigation U. Individuals and organizations commit these acts to obtain money, property, or services; to avoid the payment or loss of money or services; or to secure personal or business advantage.
As a practical matter, many people have rather informal interpretations of the term. White-collar crime can informally mean: One way that various groups have tried to reduce these inefficiencies is by crafting definitions that could enjoy buy-in from larger groups of stakeholders, providing them a common language and compatible tools for discussing white-collar crime.
Several aspects of white-collar crime were examined and discussed at length. Each attendee was asked to produce a paper on his or her position on how the term should be defined, laying out their arguments in support of their preferred definition. From the presentation of these position papers, extensive discussions among the assembled academics were held.
Through this process, white-collar crime was examined from a variety of perspectives. After considerable discussion and debate, those present at the workshop reached some consensus on the elements that need to be present to satisfy the concept of white-collar crime. Most agreed that the lack of direct violence against the victim was a critical element.
Deception to the extent necessary to commit the criminal offense such as misrepresentation of the perpetrators abilities, financial resources, accomplishments, some false promise or claim intended to deceive the victim, or possibly a deliberate effort to conceal information from the victim—all should be considered as elements of white-collar crime.
Some even contended that the term should be abandoned altogether and replaced by something more along the lines of economic crime, elite crime, or simply financial crime Gordon, In the end, those in attendance ultimately agreed that an acceptable definition would be: Financial crimes committed with a computer, using the Internet, normally do not involve physical threat or violence, they almost always involve deception in some manner, and they can result in devastating damage to the victim syet they have absolutely nothing to do with the social status of the perpetrator, do not require that the perpetrator occupy a position of trust within an organization or community, and may not even require a significant level of education.
Perhaps the best way to conceptualize white-collar offenders is on a continuum that considers all aspects of the crime itself, the perpetrator, the relationship to the victim, and the position the perpetrator occupied that made it possible to commit the offense. However, despite its physical and psychological impact on victims and even witnesses, street crime pales in many ways when compared with white-collar crime. A victim of a robbery is often traumatized by the experience and suffers the loss of any valuables taken by the perpetrator.
They also suffer psychologically by being put in fear of injury or death, but, assuming the victim was not injured, valuables can be recovered by the police and may be covered by insurance and, as such, may not actually be a loss at all.
A number of anecdotal cases and studies have pointed to the unique stressors that a victim experiences after suffering loss from fraud. Addressing the issue of white-collar crime is extremely important because of its serious impact on victims, society, and the economy.
Additionally, white-collar crimes are unique in that in many instances there is an inherent ability to victimize large numbers of individuals, often with a single act i.
Statistical Analysis of White-Collar Crime - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology
Estimates of monetary loss to employees and stockholders and, ultimately, society in general due to white-collar and corporate crime have reached hundreds of billions of dollars Public Citizen, In addition, an examination of some of the most prevalent areas in which white-collar crime seems to be found will amply illustrate the gravity of the problem.
One area of white-collar crime that consistently remains in the spotlight is health care and insurance fraud. The rising costs of medical care have driven the cost of health care insurance increasingly higher.
Identity theft is another type of fraud that is frequently highlighted in discussions of modern white-collar crime.
White-collar crime - Wikipedia
Through use of the Internet, this particular type of fraud often strikes multiple victims at once via corporate data breaches. Further, there was a new identity fraud victim every two seconds in Javelin, Aside from the considerable losses caused by identity theft and other characteristics that it may share with white-collar crimes such as the lack of face-to-face contact between the victim and perpetrator and the fact that they are financial crimes and are complex to investigatethere are those who make a compelling case that identity theft should not be characterized as white-collar crime.
Certainly, there is no requirement that a perpetrator enjoy some employment-related position of trust or require above average levels of education. Inthe network collected a total of 3, consumer complaints Federal Trade Commission, Such growth far exceeds that of more traditional crime types, which have actually been declining in recent years. In addition to the so-called more traditional forms of white-collar crime, a long and growing list of other white-collar crimes have come into prominence in recent years—especially intellectual property crime, mortgage fraud, and financial abuse of elders.
When intellectual property IP crimes are mentioned, many probably think of the controversies involving the downloading of copyrighted songs and movies. But IP theft is more than that.
Statistical Analysis of White-Collar Crime
These practices can include everything from car parts including nonfunctioning and substandard airbags and brake parts to tainted pet food and baby formula. For example, Operation Opson V, conducted between November and Februaryseized more than 10, tons and one million liters of hazardous fake food and drink in operations across 57 countries Interpol, Appelbaum and Chambliss offer a twofold definition: Organizational or corporate crime which occurs when corporate executives commit criminal acts to benefit their company by overcharging or price fixingfalse advertising, etc.
Relationship to other types of crime[ edit ] Main article: Blue-collar crime The types of crime committed are a function of what is available to the potential offender. Thus, those employed in relatively unskilled environments and living in inner-city areas have fewer opportunities to exploit than those who work in situations where large financial transactions occur and live in areas where there is relative prosperity.
In contrast, white-collar employees can incorporate legitimate and criminal behavior, thus making themselves less obvious when committing the crime. Therefore, blue-collar crime will more often use physical force, whereas in the corporate world, the identification of a victim is less obvious and the issue of reporting is complicated by a culture of commercial confidentiality to protect shareholder value.
It is estimated that a great deal of white-collar crime is undetected or, if detected, it is not reported.
Corporate crime Corporate crime deals with the company as a whole. The crime benefits the investors or the individuals who are in high positions in the company or corporation. The relationship white-collar crime has with corporate crime is that they are similar because they both are involved within the business world. Their difference is that white-collar crime benefits the individual involved, and corporate crime benefits the company or the corporation.
One well-known insider trading case in the United States is the ImClone stock trading case.
In Decembertop-level executives sold their shares in ImClone Systemsa pharmaceutical company that manufactured an anti-cancer drug. Securities and Exchange Commission investigated numerous top-level executives, as well as Martha Stewarta friend of ImClone's former chief executive who had also sold her shares at the same time.
The SEC reached a settlement in Although law enforcement claims to have prioritized white-collar crime,  evidence shows that it continues to be a low priority. Organized transnational crime[ edit ] Organized transnational crime is organized criminal activity that takes place across national jurisdictions, and with advances in transportation and information technology, law enforcement officials and policymakers have needed to respond to this form of crime on a global scale.
Some examples include human traffickingmoney laundering, drug smuggling, illegal arms dealing, terrorism, and cybercrime.