The systemic and dynamic relationship among the four elements also means that to which teachers can integrate curriculum, instruction, and assessment to. discuss the interrelationships of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and standards. I suggest why Curriculum can provide a sequential plan for instruction . curriculum must be seen in relationship to other tools used in school, such as stan-. curriculum, instruction, professional development, and assessment—that . in a given subject area and of a sequence of concepts and activities for learning. . is a clear inferential link between the nature of what is in the standards and the.
It is important to note, however, that assessment does not exist in isolation, but is closely linked to curriculum and instruction Graue, Thus as emphasized earlier, curriculum, assessment, and instruction should be aligned and integrated with each other, and directed toward the same goal Kulm, ; NCTM, ; Shepard, In advanced mathematics and science, that goal is learning with understanding.
This section reviews design principles for two types of assessments: To guide instruction, teachers need assessments that provide specific BOX Reliability, Validity, and Fairness Reliability generally refers to the stability of results.
The Relationship Between Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment by Brittany Baxter on Prezi
For example, the term denotes the likelihood that a particular student or group of students would earn the same score if they took the same test again or took a different form of the same test. Reliability also encompasses the consistency with which students perform on different questions or sections of a test that measure the same underlying concept, for example, energy transfer.
Validity addresses what a test is measuring and what meaning can be drawn from the test scores and the actions that follow Cronbach, It should be clear that what is being validated is not the test itself, but each inference drawn from the test score for each specific use to which the test results are put.
Thus, for each purpose for which the scores are used, there must be evidence to support the appropriateness of inferences that are drawn.
Why should assessments, learning objectives, and instructional strategies be aligned?
Fairness implies that a test supports the same inferences from person to person and group to group. Thus the test results neither overestimate nor underestimate the knowledge and skills of members of a particular group, for example, females. Fairness also implies that the test measures the same construct across groups. Based on a model of cognition and learning that is derived from the best available understanding of how students represent knowledge and develop competence in a domain.
Designed in accordance with accepted practices that include a detailed consideration of the reliability, validity, and fairness of the inferences that will be drawn from the test results see Box This is especially important when the assessment carries high stakes for students, teachers, or schools. Aligned with curriculum and instruction that provide the factual content, concepts, processes, and skills the assessment is intended to measure so the three do not work at cross-purposes.
Designed to include important content and process dimensions of performance in a discipline and to elicit the full range of desired complex cognition, including metacognitive strategies. Multifaceted and continuous when used to assist learning by providing multiple opportunities for students to practice their skills and receive feedback about their performance.
Designed to assess understanding that is both qualitative and quantitative in nature and to provide multiple modalities with which a student can demonstrate learning. Of primary importance if a test is to support learning is that students be given timely and frequent feedback about the correctness of their understandings; in fact, providing such feedback is one of the most important roles for assessment.
There is a large body of literature on how classroom assessment can be designed and used to improve learning and instruction see for example, Falk ; Shepard ; Wiggins, ; Niyogi, Concept maps, such as those discussed in Box in Chapter 6are one example of an assessment strategy that can be used to provide timely Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: End-of-course tests are too broad and too infrequently administered to provide information that can be used by teachers or students to inform decisions about teaching or learning on a day-to-day basis.
Thus, the content of the tests should be matched to challenging learning goals and subject matter standards and serve to illustrate what it means to know and learn in each of the disciplines. The weekly or quarterly reports then provide administrators with feedback about the instructional program, which allows them to work with teachers to identify instructional trends and to modify educational programs during the course of mapping.
Administrators can then produce year-end and cumulative reports to analyze and chart data that will help them make decisions about curriculum development and modification Weinstein, Today the availability of both personal computers in classrooms and software designed specifically for curriculum mapping make it possible for teachers to develop, archive, search, and print curriculum maps that include extended information about teaching and learning.
The ability to create, search, and sort information about what, when, and how teachers are teaching and assessing learning promotes collaboration, peer reflection and learning, horizontal and vertical alignment, spiraling of instruction, cross-curricular connections, and learning reinforcement.
With such electronic tools, administrators also find it easier to monitor instruction and facilitate instructional alignment. The Curriculum Creator, developed at AEL, is one example of an electronic tool that supports curriculum mapping.
Hints and Tips | Victorian Curriculum Planning
The Curriculum Creator is a Web-based tool available to districts and schools by subscription that they can access from any computer with an Internet connection. AEL assigns individual passwords for each staff member. To emphasize the idea of aligning instruction with standards, the Curriculum Creator requires teachers to link each activity to one or more standards that they may select from multiple content areas. A database stores the standards for each state or province and updates them as they change.
The program also includes a function that allows teachers to create and add activities to the unit in random order before putting them in an instructional sequence. The Curriculum Creator then creates curriculum maps for each month or grading period by linking and sequencing one or more instructional units. By giving teachers the opportunity to print curriculum maps by subject, grade, or standard, the Curriculum Creator's print function eases preparation of district- and state-level reports and facilitates map review within and across schools.
In this way, the program greatly aids the mapping process and helps identify and assess areas that may require further attention. For a complete listing of computer programs that support curriculum mapping, see the Curriculum Resources section of this chapter, p.
Context and Purpose In the context of the standards movement, curriculum mapping has become a powerful tool for accomplishing both curriculum alignment and curriculum-focused school improvement. The report indicated that schools in some European and Asian countries were doing better in both quality and equality of learning, while schools in the United States were losing ground on each count.
The report recommended strengthening the content of the core curriculum and raising expectations using measurable standards. Inthe National Council of Teachers of Mathematics led the way with the publication of its standards. Shortly after, the President and governors met at an educational summit in Charlottesville, Virginia, which led to development of the National Educational Goals.
Chapter 2. Assessment and Differentiation: A Framework for Understanding
The emphasis on promoting educational excellence continued, as an initiative was launched to create national standards in each of the core subject areas. Byevery state but Iowa had developed standards in at least the core content areas, and many also had developed assessment systems to measure student acquisition of the concepts and skills outlined in the states' curriculum frameworks i.
Determining the strategies states used to help students meet high standards was the topic of a research project undertaken by the nation's 10 regional educational laboratories, funded by the U. Key findings of this study indicated that four primary activities facilitate standards-based reform efforts at the district level Laboratory Network Program, Aligning curricula to standards and, when possible, to assessments.
Developing relationships and communicating with stakeholders. Curriculum mapping supports all four of these activities. Aligning Curricula to Standards and Assessments How well a school system works depends, in large part, on how well it aligns curriculum and assessment with standards throughout the district.
In practical terms, this means that for students to succeed, they should be taught what they are expected to learn and assessed on what they are taught. One way to expedite the alignment process is to build on the curriculum that is already in place. However, defining the specific curriculum is not always easy because the written curriculum outlined in curriculum guides often is not what is being taught in classrooms.
Curriculum guides define what should be taught, but in many cases they do not affect what actually happens in classrooms. Jacobs b describes curriculum guides as usually "well-intended fictions. Individual teacher decisions about what to emphasize, made in isolation and with good intentions, can actually contribute to a school's poor test scores.
Another problem with most curriculum guides is that they do not address instruction how educators teach or assessment how educators know students have learned Burns, Using curriculum mapping, teachers define the curriculum and review it to identify strong examples of standards-based instruction. They also identify where gaps exist in the standards addressed, deal with repetitions in instruction, and determine the appropriate sequencing and spiraling of concepts and skills.
As teachers analyze maps within and across grades, they share examples of creative teaching strategies, fill the gaps in standards-based instruction, eliminate any unnecessary repetitions, and make other adjustments in instruction and classroom assessment to bring the curriculum into alignment with district benchmarks and state standards.
Curriculum mapping is not a deficit model of curricular improvement; instead, it builds on the good things that teachers are already doing in the classroom. If district benchmarks for standards do not exist, a committee of teachers and curriculum specialists should develop grade-level content benchmarks for each standard.
This process, called unpacking the standards, provides teachers with clearer targets for developing standards-based curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Once teachers have mapped the taught curriculum, analyzed its alignment to benchmarks and standards, identified examples of instructional excellence and equity, and made any necessary modifications, they are ready to develop exit assessments traditional and performance-based for measuring student mastery of the aligned curriculum.
Student performance on teacher-developed exit assessments should be an indicator of students' performance on standardized tests. Results also should be used to inform instructional decision making.
Building Staff Capacity Curriculum mapping can also build staff capacity for continuous improvement. In fact, when done systematically, curriculum mapping is in itself a comprehensive professional development program Burns, In addition to the previously described alignment activities used during curriculum mapping, a number of scaffolding resources are provided in this chapter that help teachers identify strengths and innovations in their curriculum and locate any areas that need improvement.
Many teachers are surprised to learn that the language of standards and the level of questioning on standardized tests is higher than they might have thought; some also find that as they review their maps, many activities and assessments tend to fall in the lower levels of the taxonomy. Another resource that assists teachers with extending effective and equitable instructional practice is Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Building on his theory, teachers use surveys and observations to determine their students' intelligences and then design a variety of instructional activities to meet their diverse learning strengths.
Because teachers also assess their own intelligences through this process, they are able to build on their individual strengths and promote teamwork within a grade-level or interdisciplinary team. As teachers analyze their maps and discuss the effectiveness of teaching activities to improve student performance within and across schools, they experience real professional growth.
Teachers learn from one another as they design lessons and assessments that are matched to standards. They also differentiate the curriculum. Experts like Jacobs a encourage teachers to identify potential areas for curriculum integration and provide them with a template for designing rich, rigorous, and relevant standards-based integrated units.
Through curriculum mapping, professional development is directly linked to daily classroom practice. Developing Relationships and Communicating with Stakeholders Curriculum maps are useful visual tools for communicating with parents and students about what happens in a classroom, school, or district.
When parents move into a new school district, they may want to learn more about the curriculum that is offered.
When individual teachers or teaching teams share curriculum maps with parents, they keep parents informed about their expectations for student work. Seeing the curriculum for a month or for a grading period provides parents with an opportunity to ask questions of the teacher and to assist their children at home.
Some parents may even be able to offer resources or special expertise that can contribute to the topics their children are studying. Students also benefit from seeing curriculum maps. Maps help them become better informed about what is expected of them in the classroom.
Students also learn to take more responsibility for their work when they know in advance what will be required. Curriculum maps can help to stimulate students' curiosity and activate their prior knowledge as they begin thinking about what they will learn over the next few weeks. Many school and district administrators use curriculum maps for documentation and verification of standards-based instruction for the state department of education. For example, Lunenburg County and Galax City school districts in Virginia use curriculum maps to document that the Standards of Learning SOLs are being taught in every classroom and in every school.
This is a policy requirement for school accreditation in the state. Nancy Chappell, director of instruction in Lunenburg County, explains that under Virginia Standards of Accreditation, schools accredited with warnings as a result of low scores on state tests must undergo a state review visit. One of the four questions in this review is "Do you have an aligned curriculum? Using Resources Effectively "While reviewing their maps, educators also should consider ways to upgrade their teaching strategies and materials" Jacobs,p.
As teachers analyze their maps and compare their instruction with student performance data, they may identify ways to use instructional strategies and resources more effectively. Sometimes this means that a resource or strategy that is successful for one teacher may be adopted or adapted by others who identify similar needs in their classroom. Likewise, teachers abandon resources and strategies that are not effective in improving student learning. Conclusion Curriculum mapping provides a process by which educators can become active participants in improving teaching and learning.
Because curriculum mapping builds on teachers' strengths and creativity and focuses on students' learning strengths, it is a teacher-owned and student-centered process. When teachers record their students' actual learning experiences, teachers "own" the curriculum and, therefore, have a greater investment in implementing and sustaining improvements Burns, Curriculum mapping also encourages student creativity. Because the maps show students what they will study, students are motivated to think about questions they may have about the topics or ideas for projects they may wish to pursue.
Many teachers engage students in developing essential questions for each instructional unit. Also, teachers frequently design a range of learning activities and assessments that provide choices for students and allow them to use their unique talents and interests. Because curriculum mapping supports the primary activities that facilitate standards-based reform, and because it is a tool that builds on teacher and student strengths and creativity, curriculum mapping may be the most effective process for improving education.
Many reforms have come and gone over the decades without achieving their desired goals. Their failures have been due largely to lack of adoption or sustainability because they were "handed down" to teachers. Curriculum mapping begins with what teachers are already doing well; it is a grassroots process that builds on what is effective and innovative, and it provides opportunities for critical review of instructional effectiveness by keeping the focus on student learning results.