In advanced industrial societies the educational system has been identified as how the educational system should be organised to meet the social and economic about the interrelationship between education, economy and society . But they link the educational system more directly with the system of social there is a functional relationship between education and economic system. The raw material of social systems is the history of mankind. The record of history It is this stability in the relationship between the positions of the . created a crisis in the educational system because of the distortion in the age distribution of .
This paper focuses on the relationship between education and society. It acknowledges a strong relationship between the two concepts. Education is sees as a means of cultural transmission from one generation to another in any given society. Society is defined as the whole range of social relationships of people living in a certain geographic territory and having a sense of belonging to the same group.
The relationships between the two concepts are so strong that it is not possible to separate them because what happens to one affects the other. Educational institutions are micro-societies, which reflect the entire society. The education system in any given society prepares the child for future life and instills in his those skills that will enable him to live a useful life and contribute to the development of the society.
Introduction Many sociologists have observed that there is a strong relationship between education and society. This observation is borne out of the fact that it is not possible to separate or draw any line of demarcation between the two concepts. This is because of the fact that what happens to the educational system undoubtedly affects the society, and whatever occurs in the society influences or shapes the educational system in all its ramifications.
Here, the term society shall be briefly looked into and the relationship between education and society. Every individual is born into a particularly society which bring about familiarity and interaction of rational beings. Adedipe described society as a group of people consciously living together in their own characteristics way; that is a way of deliberate living peculiar or a particular group. That is, society consists of human beings their activities, and relationship to one another and in relation to their natural and social environment.
In other words, education is the totality of the process to make an individuals useful members of the society. Emile Durkheim a French sociologist maintains that the major functions of education is the transmission of societal norms and values.
However, it has become pertinent and imperative to educate every member in the society, irrespective of class, or position as well as 3 the role one occupies in society. The problem in society today is glaring that everybody needs to be re-socialised and educated so as to have less conflict. In Nigeria, there are constant strikes among the civil servant. In Nigeria, there are constant strikes among the civil servant, political problems, mismanagement of public funds, child abused, truancy, indiscipline, cultism on the part of students, oppression, injustice, poverty, exploitation to one social group by another.
Workers salaries not regularly paid, and time is no longer the soul of business among civil servants. To cap it all, there is need for equal treatment in the society. Durkheim was one of the first sociologists to appreciate the relationship between equation and society. He saw education as a social phenomenon through which a society assumes its own continuity by socializing the young in its own image. The 4 components of the educational system that constitute perfectly defined facts and which have the same reality as another social fact are inter-related.
Ottaway defined society as the whole range of social relationships of people living in a certain geographical territory and having a feeling of belonging to the same kind of group. In every society, whether developing or developed, complex or primitive, there is always an education system. Education systems are not the same, as no two societies are identical.
Therefore, education systems differ from society to society and their aims, contents and techniques also differ from one society to another. From the foregoing, one might postulate that education institutions are micro-societies, which mirror the entire society.
This is one of the reasons why societies try to evolve education systems and policies that would meet the needs, beliefs, attitudes and the aspirations of their people. What are the functions of education to any given society? Perhaps, if we answer this question, much attention and focus would be given to our educational system.
The Relationship between Education and Society (7040 Words)
Broom and Seiznick outlined some of the functions of education. Education as social system creates awareness of a cultural heritage, traditional values as well as cultural transmission, which tends to lay emphasis on respect or tradition. Cultural transmission calls for humanist 6 scholarship, teaching, preservation and examination of society, history, language, religion as well as philosophy in the society. Social Integration The basic and fundamental function of education is the formation of a common language and a sense of common identity.
For example, in Europe, schools teach in an official language and this helps to standardized and foster unity. In the same vein, in Nigeria, the official language is English Language but in the primary and post primary schools, emphasis is typically laid on the language of the three ethnic groups. The essence of this is to foster social integration of common identify in the society. Innovation Early man discovered how to make fire.
Every society is conscious of innovations that lead to growth and development. New ideas and approaches come up everyday in order to solve human problems. However, knowledge abounds everyday as a result of innovation especially in the field of technology. Selection and Allocation In the early years, when few were educated, the school only played a smaller role than the family in determining allocation of job and status.
With the increase in schools, the school system has taken over the job of screening and allocating. The school is therefore a mechanism for role allocation in the society. Education as an instrument creditably performs a unique function in human life. It is important to note that education gives skills and perspectives that formal cannot be achieved through other socializing agencies.
For example, habits are learned such as punctuality that may be necessary in a time conscious society. However, it is a truism to emphasize that functional relationship between education and other social systems leads to development in the society.
Education is a mechanical tool, a spinner that loosens every knot that refuses to loose. That is, education plays a prominent role in the life of an individual and the society at large, which must be given to every body in the society. Relationship between Education and Society 8 Complimentary functions We have seen education in particular as a means of cultural transmission from one generation to another.
The parents are the first teachers of the child and they still maintain an educative function throughout the early and formative years of the child.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND ECONOMY
In most of the developing nations of the world, including Nigeria, parents are responsible for sending their children or wards to school. Since these nations are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political changes, they witness special problems in evolving the appropriate education system, which will be able to produce the adequate manpower needs in all the segments of the society. This means that the child cannot be educated in a vacuum or in isolation.
Therefore, for a child to be educated there must be interaction between him and his physical and social environment. By this we mean that education is the development of personality. It is something which goes on both inside and outside the home and in the school. In other words, education is an activity of the whole community. One important implication of looking at education as the transmitter of cultural values is the fact that education can be influenced by the culture of the society in which it takes place.
For this reason, one may infer that for a child to be educated, he must be influenced by his environment and, in turn, be capable of influencing it. We have noted above that education is a means through which the cultural values of a particular society are transmitted from one generation to another. Through this process, the society is able to achieve basic social conformity and ensure that its traditional values, beliefs, attitudes and aspirations are maintained and preserved.
Clark observed that a general knowledge and acceptance of the ideals and aims of our society is essential for all its citizens, and it must be achieved through education but in a form, which makes it compatible with freedom. So he reconciles the double purpose by saying that admittedly, the purpose of the educative society may be to make men conformable. But overmastering that must be the purpose to make men free. A society needs a stable and dynamic set of values and a unified purpose.
It is when this is ascertained that meaningful economic, political and social programmes can be embarked upon for the overall benefits of the 10 citizens. To be a fully developed person in such a society, implies full and creative membership of it with powers to change it. Ottaway contended that the transmission of culture still remains a vital function, and is not to be dismissed as merely conservative in the sense of being old-fashioned.
Social class position includes income, occupation and life style. These have impact on the upbringing of the child. Under the segregated schooling that long prevailed in the United States, officially in the South and informally elsewhere, Negroes received an inferior education. Racially segregated schools have simply been poorer schools and children in these schools are not given the same opportunity to learn to the same level as white schools.
The neighborhood environment has much to do with the education of the children. Low income families concentrate in the inner city, live in old and decaying houses. Families with similar level of income, and similar vocation live in neighborhood. This sort of inequality is found everywhere in the West. The residential segregation is a factor that produces class structures. Neighborhood has its impact on the school, and on the peer group. The attitude of the teacher has much to do with education of the children.
The very real measurable differences between middle class and lower class children in tests, as well as the differences between white and Negro children, are to be accounted for, not by innate differences in ability, but by differences of cultural exposure and bearing opportunities. The children in rural areas studying in poorly equipped schools have to compete with the children in urban areas where there are well-equipped schools and more informative environment for getting admission to the schools for higher bearing on professional colleges.
In Indian situation educational inequality due to sex is also very much visible. They are given inferior position in the family and their education is neglected. Educational inequality is due to the system itself and also on account of conditions prevailing in society.
It is multi-sided affair and is continuing both in developed and developing societies.Social institutions - education, family, and religion - Society and Culture - MCAT - Khan Academy
In many societies it finds expression in the form of public schools. Some of the societies including our own, run public schools which provide much better education than the type of education provided by State run and controlled educational institutions.
The education in the former institutions being much costly as compared with the latter and admission obviously open to only few privileged.
This creates educational inequality in its own way. It is really strange that education aimed at social transformation reflects the structured inequalities in our social system.
Educational institutions are in a sense closed systems since opportunities that elite has for excellent educational system is not available for the unfortunate masses. Obviously this system breeds inequality of opportunities. In many cities there is a definite status hierarchy in primary education and to a large extend, the choice of a primary school determines career opportunities.
Top priority is given to English medium schools sponsored by missionaries since they offer the best education. Next in the hierarchy are non-English medium schools run by religious organisations and charitable trusts. At the bottom of the hierarchy are the schools run by the Government. Naturally the choice of English medium schools is the forerunner for lucrative and prestigious careers for a particular segment of society. We have at present a stratified society and a stratified pattern of schooling and they compete each other.
Dual system of education has to be done away with through legislation and thereby evolve a common pattern of schooling to build a strong and unified democratic system in India. Educational privileges must reach down to the poor and particularly it should benefit members of the Scheduled Castes. Rapid expansion of education among women is achieved although they are still at a disadvantage compared to men. To some extent education has proved to be a source of social mobility for the depressed groups.
Education is a double-edged instrument which can eliminate the effects of socio-economic inequalities but it can also introduce a new kind of inequality. Education can influence the process of social change among the weaker sections of society.
Persistent and planned efforts by the Government and voluntary agencies will go a long way toward elimination of educational inequalities. Education as Medium of Cultural Reproduction, Indoctrination: The enduring function of education is the cultural reproduction. It has been recognised to be its main role. It is by education that the newborn is initiated in the social ways. It transmits culture to him. At the early stages the aim is to introduce the child to the normative order of his group.
In the traditional society kinship group worked for the child to this end. In complex modern industrial society of the West, this work is undertaken by specialized agencies such as school.
In traditional society, cultural reproduction may take place by oral teaching of heritage and culture; history and legend, and in a practical way by participating in the celebration of festivals. One may at a successive stage be introduced to culture through books. Yet one may not be in a position to appreciate it.
It is only after one has been initiated and motivated that one gets cultivated in the cultural ways. As indicated above it is a lifelong educational process. The movies, radio, record industry, and the television are strong instruments to impart education. Their appeal is direct. But these are not bound to any normative standard. Their basic standard is the marketability.
The cultivated morality is challenged; established values are disregarded; mockery is made of humility and decency.
With the disregarding of the traditional values, the growing children find themselves like the waves in the boundless sea, and the older feel to have been left high and dry. It throws into critical relief the whole issue of whether the culture is to be transmitted effectively within the frame work of recognized institutions or whether a disparate set of unlinked and unregulated structures and processes are to carry out competitive even contradictory cultural transmission, and whatever unanticipated consequences.
It is becoming a specialized process. Education is a process of indoctrination. It has been so and it shall remain so.
A child is trained in the accepted values to fit in the social milieu. The training of child has been such down the ages. Education and the class room have been used for the perpetuation of the values, beliefs and faith in East and West alike. Pulpit throughout the Christiandom, has been the great instrument of indoctrination. Ecclesiastical order, which for long controlled the education, had generally been fanatic. They had vested interest in perpetuating fanaticism.
The French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, held that school has always been used as an ideological apparatus. He said that the real peril was the growing power of religious orders of monks and nuns and from the character of the teaching given by them in the religious schools they were conducting.
They were doing their best to make the children hostile to the Republic. InCombos, the successor of Waldeck Rousseau observed. But the role of education in India was regarded humanist. In ancient Indian schools, emphasis was laid on pure values. It is worth quoting. Education and Social Change: Education is considered the most powerful instrument of social change. It is through education that the society can bring desirable changes and modernise itself.
Various studies have revealed the role of education in bringing about social changes. The relation between education and changes in social structure has been examined in rural contexts.
Holmberg and Dobyns jointly as well as separately reported the Vicos action research project. The project was a study of the role of enlightenment in social development. The findings of this project were that education became enmeshed in wider social changes as knowledge became the means to status and effective participation.
It was also found that the most modernised citizens in the community were the youngsters, who had attended school. In another study by Daniel Lerner, it was found that the key to modernisation lies in the participant society, i. The studies of Philip Foster in Ghana and Edward Shils in India have also revealed the role of education in social change.
According to Foster it was formal Western Schooling in Ghana that created a cultural environment in which innovations could take place. Shils making a study of the intellectuals in India came to conclusion that if there is to be any successful bridging in the gap between tradition and modern societies, it is the Western educated intellectual who must perform the task.
Coleman, Foster, Lipset and many others have shown that education plays a very vital role in political change. It is held that political development is largely dependent on education.
It provides the skills required by modern political bureaucracies, in many emergent nations it has provided a common language, it helps to recruit elite and provides a central force in movements for independence. It may be said that social change may be brought about by political situation, economic development, technological development etc. By whatever mans the change may be brought about; education always plays an import role in its propagation.
The political situation may lead to democratic or totalitarian form of Government. The changes in keeping with the form of the government in the society can only be brought about through education. Even the acceptance of the form of Government by the majority will be dependent on how it is being educated.
The economic growth leads to social change. It is however, education which leads to economic growth. The development in science and technology are also dependent on education.
It is an important means of attaining economic standard of society. It is essential for the economy. Change in the educational system result in social and economic changes, greater social mobility and more skilled and well-trained manpower for technologically based industries. Education has been playing in important role in getting occupations which are key determinants of general social status. Therefore, the schools are agent in realisation of the desire for upward mobility.
The schools are instrumental in transforming the occupational structure as well as class structure. Education increases political awareness and political participation of the people. This brings about wider political changes with the increasingly organised participation of the people in national politics. In modern societies educational organisations act as innovators.
These organisations disseminate new knowledge and ideas and promote the processes of social change. According to Alex Inkeles, different levels of education have different levels of effects. In the developing countries primary education is enabling the people to do things they would never have been able to do before.
Basic literacy brings a society into world. Higher education is not only an aid for individual development, but also for the all-round development of the society. In China, India, Japan, America and many other countries students agitation have resulted in vast changes. In some cases, the students movements are found to discredit, transform or topple governments. Modern Education changes our attitude and values. It affects our customs, traditions, beliefs and manners. It removes our superstitious beliefs and irrational fear about the supernatural things.
Now education aims at imparting knowledge about science, technology and other secular knowledge. It has been universally acknowledged that through the promotion of education modern values in social, economic, political and cultural fields can be inculcated.
Education has contributed to the improvement in the status of women. So far as the importance of modern education is concerned, according Inkeles, it helps them in moving away from traditionalism to modernity. It has helped them to seek employment and to come out of the family. To conclude, education is the driving force behind the phenomenon of social change. The role of education as a factor or instrument of social change and development is universally recognised today.
Education can initiate and accelerate the process of change by changing the attitude and values of man. It can change man and his style of living and hence can change the society. But education follows social changes.
Changes in education take place due to the impact of social changes. Changes in content and methods of education become a necessity for education to be relevant and effective.
When changes occur in needs of the society. Technology and values of society, education also undergoes changes. Society has various needs and these need are subject to change. The changing needs of the society bring changes in the educational system. It means that educational changes occur because of social needs and aspirations. Universal education, adult education, vocational and scientific education are the various forms and varieties of education which have been brought about by the needs of modern Indian society.
Many changes occur in education because of cultural changes. To conclude, education and social change are very intimately related. They influence each other mutually. Modernisation denotes total transformation of traditional or pre-modern society into the types of technology and associated social organisation that characterise the advanced economically prosperous and relatively politically stable nations of the West. Modernisation is defined as a conscious set of plans and policies pursued by the leaders or elites of developing countries for changing their societies in the direction of modern developed societies.
Modernisation is the process of transforming the old traditional societies and nations to modernity in the fields of economic, technological, industrial and social advancement. It is to bring a less advanced nation at par with the advanced country. It is the result of the growing recognition of the need for global harmonisation in the larger interests of humanity.
EDUCATION AND SOCIETY: WHAT TYPE OF RELATIONSHIP | toyin ajani - posavski-obzor.info
The process modernisation is viewed as one time historical process which was started by the Industrial Revolution in England and the political Revolution in France. Modernisation first occurred in the West through the twin process of commercialization and industrialisation. Early in the twentieth century Japan, the first Asian country, joined the race for industrialisation. The process is to be viewed as an all-in-all process but not a compartmentalised one. Hence, technical, economic, social, industrial and political orders are to be changed radically.
Modernisation takes place in different spheres — political, economic, social and educational. Industrialisation, urbanisation, secularisation, rapid growth of transport and communication, educational revolutions etc. Modernisation involves not only changes at structural level but also fundamental changes at the personal level, a change in modes of thinking, beliefs, opinion, attitudes and action.
Several interacting transformations are involved in the process of modernisation. Education is a great force in modernisation. It plays a crucial role in various spheres of modernisation. Education has been recognised as the most important factor connected with rise and growth of modernisation process of a society irrespective of cultural milieu in which it finds itself. It has been universally acknowledged that through the promotion of education, modern values in social economic, political and cultural fields can be inculcated.
Rationality and scientific temper being the preponderant characteristics of modernisation can be acquired through constant learning. Emphasis has been given on education as an instrument for social reconstruction and modernisation. It is particularly the Western education that enabled many to develop and inculcate the sense of modern outlook. Such an evidence was visible enough when India was under British rule. It was educated population who took the leadership and contributed in bringing many policies and programmes that were sought after before the British.
They inculcated the values of patriotism, nativism, humanitarianism only through education and these ideas were employed as tools against the British. These goals are to be achieved through education. Education prepares the mentality of the people to accept changes.
It creates conducive environment for modernisation. By promoting democratic values and progressive attitudes in the people, education makes them capable to participate and strengthen the process of modernisation.
It teaches them to fight against social evils, blind beliefs and superstitions. Education is not only aid for individual development, but also for the all-round development of society and the country. It helps for the development of the qualities of an individual such as mental and emotional makeup as well as his temperament and character. For the individual it provides rational and scientific thinking, reasoning, skills and capabilities to adjust to new situations. Modern education helps people in moving away from traditionalism to modernity.
Education is considered the most powerful instrument of modernisation. It is through education that the society can bring desirable change and modernise itself. Learner says that the key to modernisation lies in the participant society; that is one in which people go through school, read newspapers, are in the wage and market economy, participate politically through elections and change opinions on matters of public business. The importance of education as an instrument of modernisation needs no special reiteration.