Marine life - Wikipedia
The diversity of producer species, on which all life depends, is immense, and are returned from the oceans to the land through the movements of organisms, Some of the broadest patterns of environmental difference arise from the way our . Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the very nature of our planet. Marine organisms produce much of the oxygen we breathe. .. Furthermore, this difference in distribution may vary between. All animals, all fungi, and some kinds of bacteria are heterotrophs and consumers. speed of a jackrabbit or impala, or the sting of a bee or spines of a sea urchin. Predation (+ -) is another winner-loser relationship but it is not symbiosis.
How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean?
Fossils, along with the comparative anatomy of present-day organisms, constitute the morphological, or anatomical, record. However, this approach is most successful for organisms that had hard body parts, such as shells, bones or teeth. Further, as prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea share a limited set of common morphologies, their fossils do not provide information on their ancestry. Evolutionary tree showing the divergence of modern species from their common ancestor in the centre.
Competency Relationships Between Organisms and the Environment | BioEd Online
More recently, evidence for common descent has come from the study of biochemical similarities between organisms. For example, all living cells use the same basic set of nucleotides and amino acids. The next major change in cell structure came when bacteria were engulfed by eukaryotic cells, in a cooperative association called endosymbiosis. Here, the majority of types of modern animals appeared in the fossil record, as well as unique lineages that subsequently became extinct. The image shows a cyanobacterial -algal mat.
Marine biology - Wikipedia
Much of the aphotic zone's energy is supplied by the open ocean in the form of detritus. Deep sea and trenches[ edit ] A deep-sea chimaera.
Its snout is covered with tiny pores capable of detecting animals by perturbations in electric fields. At such depths, water pressure is extreme and there is no sunlight, but some life still exists. A white flatfisha shrimp and a jellyfish were seen by the American crew of the bathyscaphe Trieste when it dove to the bottom in Marine life also flourishes around seamounts that rise from the depths, where fish and other sea life congregate to spawn and feed.
Hydrothermal vents along the mid-ocean ridge spreading centers act as oasesas do their opposites, cold seeps. Such places support unique biomes and many new microbes and other lifeforms have been discovered at these locations. Most involve studying specializations of particular animal groups, such as phycologyinvertebrate zoology and ichthyology. This process, known as succession, leads to changes in soil, and the populations of organisms that are present.
Primary succession takes place when organisms gradually inhabit a bare substrate such as rockleading to the development of soil and gradual increases in the numbers of kinds and species.
Over time, as conditions change, different groups of organisms become prevalent. Secondary succession occurs in an area where a disturbance, such as fire, has occurred.
In general, early stages of succession are characterized by fast-growing or weedy species that tolerate extreme conditions, known as r-selected species. Gradually, these early invaders are replaced by other species K-selected species that compete more effectively in the environment that has been colonized and changed by the weedy colonizers. Invasive species are those that are introduced into a new habitat, where they out compete native species that share similar niches.
Invasive species can have drastic effects on biodiversity and energy flow in communities. Ecological Succession Ecological succession, pioneer species, and climax communities are discussed in great detail in this resource by SparkNotes.Warming oceans and marine species migration: poleward bound
Algal Blooms Algal blooms can drastically impact ecosystems by poisioning waterways or by removing dissolved oxygen from water when the algae is decomposed. Additional support provided by: