From DNA to RNA to protein, how does it work?
The connection between genes and proteins Phenotypes (physical traits) a DNA strand provides a template for the synthese of a complementary RNA. The bases on one strand of DNA form base pairs with a second strand of DNA to one base of RNA, this 1 to 1 relation is not used in the translation to protein. A gene is a set of instructions on how to make one protein (molecular What is the relationship between chromatin fibre, chromosomes, DNA and genes? .. to a specific segment of DNA that encodes either a protein or a functional RNA.
That's a great question, and we can't give a definitive answer. To some extent, that's simply how the gene expression system evolved, and we are speculating when we address the "why" of transcription. If we found life on another planet, it could possibly express its genes through a different process that did not involve transcription. In known organisms, however, transcription is an essential part of gene expression. Even if cells somehow had a way to directly read a DNA sequence and use it to build a protein which they don'tthere are reasons why transcription would still be a necessary step: One reason simply relates to location.
In a eukaryotic cell, the DNA is locked up in the nucleus, while the ribosomes — molecular machines used to make proteins — are found in the cytosol.
Thus, a "messenger" is needed to carry information from DNA out of the nucleus to the waiting ribosomes. Transcription also provides an important control point at which cells regulate how much of a polypeptide is produced.
Although other stages of gene expression can also be regulated, control of transcription is the most common form of gene regulation. If the transcription stage were somehow removed, cells would lose much of their control over which polypeptides were produced and when. Transcription In transcriptionone strand of the DNA that makes up a gene, called the non-coding strand, acts as a template for the synthesis of a matching complementary RNA strand by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.
This RNA strand is the primary transcript. The two strands of DNA have the following sequences: This strand is called the template strand. Transcription of the template strand produces an mRNA that nearly matches the other strand coding strand of DNA in sequence. The mRNA sequence is: One important difference is that RNA molecules do not include the base thymine T. Instead, they have the similar base uracil U. Like thymine, uracil pairs with adenine. Identity of the sugars.
Bears a thymine base that has a methyl group attached to its ring. Bears a uracil base that is very similar in structure to thymine, but does not have a methyl group attached to the ring. Although RNA transcripts are not made up of two separate strands, RNA can sometimes fold back on itself to form double-stranded regions and complex 3D structures.
In addition, some viruses have genomes made of double-stranded RNA. The DNA is broken down into bits and is tightly wound into coils, which are called chromosomes; human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
These chromosomes are further broken down into smaller pieces of code called Genes. The 23 pairs of chromosomes consist of about 70, genes and every gene has its own function. As I have mentioned earlier, DNA is made up of four nucleotide bases, finding out the arrangement of the bases is called DNA sequencing, there are various methods for sequencing a DNA, it is usually carried out by a machine or by running the DNA sample over a gel otherwise called gel electrophoresis.
Sample genetic code with complementary strands. Determining the gene's functionality and position of the gene in the chromosome is called gene mapping. Recent developments show that scientists are mapping every gene in the human body. They named their project Human Genome Project HGPwhich involves careful study of all the 70, genes in human body.
Relationship Between DNA Bases Genes, Proteins and Traits | Sciencing
That's some thing unimaginable. When there is a change in the genetic code it is called mutation. The significance of a DNA is very high. The gene's sequence is like language that instructs cell to manufacture a particular protein.