How do functional groups affect organic molecules? | Socratic
The identification of functional groups and the ability to predict reactivity based on functional group properties is one of the cornerstones of organic chemistry. A functional group is a portion of a molecule that is a recognizable/classified In organic chemistry it is very common to see molecules comprised mainly of a carbon its properties, regardless of what molecule contains it*; they are centers of. In organic chemistry, a functional group is a specific group of atoms or bonds within to covalently link functional molecules to the surfaces of chemical devices.
Traditionally, organic compounds containing carboxyl groups have been called carboxylic acids because of the tendency to release hydrogen ions into a solution lowering pH. In general, amino groups increase polarity and reactivity of an organic molecule and readily form hydrogen bonds with water and other polar molecules.
Functional Groups and Biomolecules
Like free ammonia NH3amines are weakly basic and bind to hydrogenions in solution raising pH. With four electronegative oxygen atoms, phosphate groups are highly reactive, and transfer of a phosphate group from one molecule to another delivers energy to chemical reactions.
ATP, the main energy carrier in cells, is composed of three phosphate groups bonded in succession. The release of a phosphate group from ATP provides energy for many biologically important chemical reactions. How to Spot Functional Groups Use this activity to review key characteristics of several biologically important functional groups. And then, in fact, the entire molecule is very polar because it has all these hydroxyl groups on it as well, but this is also going to give it polarity here and, because this carbon has a slightly positive charge, it is susceptible to nucleophilic attack, and when you take organic chemistry, you'll see that things that want to share-- That have a predisposition to share their electrons in a bond might want to come and form a bond with this carbon and maybe one of these electron pairs go back to this oxygen and maybe bond with something else, but we'll talk about it in the future when we study some organic chemistry mechanisms.
The important thing here is just recognize, "Okay, I've got some hydroxyl groups?
Functional groups (video) | Khan Academy
And this has actually a couple of interesting groups on it. The first group of note is this stuff that I am circling in orange because you have a carbon that, you could say it's part of a carbonyl group, but it is also bound to a hydroxyl group. It is also bound to a hydroxyl group right over there. And when you have this configuration where you have a carbon bond double-bonded to an oxygen and then single-bonded to a hydroxyl group, we call this a carboxyl group.
This is a carboxyl. And one of the take aways from this is that it is acidic because this can readily give up the hydrogen proton.
This oxygen, we already know oxygen likes to hog electrons, it can take up both of these electrons and become negative, and actually, there's actually resonance here because those electrons get shared throughout the group and actually even potentially even beyond the group but especially inside of the group, then leaving the hydrogen proton.
So this can readily donate a hydrogen proton This can readily donate a hydrogen proton, so this is generally viewed as acidic.
Now, this amino acid over here, it also, and this is where this name comes from, actually the acid comes from this carboxyl group, this is the acidic part, and then you have an animo group. You have an amino group right, right over here. And because it's involving a nitrogen, this is the amino group.
This is what gives the amino part of the name amino acid. And this actually is generally basic. Because nitogen could-- It has a lone pair. It has a lone pair of electrons right over here.
- How do functional groups affect the structure and function of macromolecules?
- How do functional groups affect organic molecules?
And so it could use that lone pair to pick up, to form a bond with a hydrogen ion, to pick up a hydrogen ion. So, under the right circumstances, it can form a bond with a hydrogen ion, which, we know, a positive ion, which would just be a proton, and so it would have a positive charge.
And so since it can sop up hydrogen ions, we can view this, the amino group, as being basic. But this right over here is leucine, it's an amino acid super important for muscle growth, but there you can appreciate. You have essentially a hydrocarbon chain, but it has a carboxyl group at this end and an animo group right over here. And another thing that you'll sometimes people talk about is even hydrocarbon groups.
Organic Chemistry/Overview of Functional Groups
For example, if you consider the main chain of this, and we could consider to either using this carbon or this carbon, but if we consider this to be the main chain of carbons, if we consider that to be the main chain of carbons, then we would consider this right over here to be a methyl group. Remember, the prefix "meth" refers to one carbon, so it's one carbon bonded to a bunch of hydrogens, to three hydrogens here, and so we would call this a methyl group.The functional group concept explained - The Chemistry Journey - The Fuse School
And in general, if you have a hydrocarbon bonded to other hydrocarbon groups, these things are hydrophobic. In fact, there are many times more organic compounds known than all the other inorganic compounds discovered so far, about 7 million organic compounds in total.
Fortunately, organic chemicals consist of a relatively few similar parts, combined in different ways, that allow us to predict how a compound we have never seen before may react, by comparing how other molecules containing the same types of parts are known to react.
These parts of organic molecules are called functional groups. The identification of functional groups and the ability to predict reactivity based on functional group properties is one of the cornerstones of organic chemistry. Functional groups are specific atoms, ions, or groups of atoms having consistent properties.
A functional group makes up part of a larger molecule. For example, -OH, the hydroxyl group that characterizes alcohols, is an oxygen with a hydrogen attached.
It could be found on any number of different molecules.
Just as elements have distinctive properties, functional groups have characteristic chemistries. An -OH group on one molecule will tend to react similarly, although perhaps not identically, to an -OH on another molecule. Organic reactions usually take place at the functional group, so learning about the reactivities of functional groups will prepare you to understand many other things about organic chemistry.