Juno (Hera, to the Greeks) the wife of Jupiter, hated Hercules because he was the The close relationship of "heroism", in the ancient sense, to madness was. Hera (Juno) in the story of Heracles (Hercules): Birth and Early Adventures. Hera (Juno) character analysis by PhD students from Stanford, Harvard, Berkeley. Heracles and Hera had a difficult relationship. In fact, the queen of the Gods tremendously hated the half-man known for his strength and hero.
Enter heartless Hera once more. She again drove Heracles mad and this time the hefty beast of man threw his greatest pal, Iphitus, over the city wall to his death.
And just like the last time, Heracles submitted to servitude as penalty for the killing. Eventually the queen freed Heracles and married him. Over the years Heracles continued to have extraordinary adventures.
He rescued poor Prometheus from a vulture that ate his liver every day.
He killed countless beasts, dragons and monsters. He had a drinking contest with Dionysus and lost. He founded a new nation in Scythia by having relations with a half-woman, half-snake. In addition to all the warring, Heracles managed to have endless affairs with women and men, fathering countless children and heirs, and thereby passing on his strength and partial divinity.
Kings for ages on would boast lineage from the demi-god. Eventually though, these extramarital affairs were the end of Heracles. It all happened when Heracles and his third wife, Deianira, tried to cross a river. A centaur named Nessus offered to help the young lady, but then tried to take advantage of her while Heracles was on shore.
The mighty warrior was not pleased and swiftly shot the deceitful centaur with a poisoned arrow. As Nessus lay dying, however, he plotted his revenge. Heracles put it on and was immediately in torment. The poison burned the flesh from his bones.
Heracles then chose to die on a pyre to end his suffering. To his Etruscan founders the meaning of this triad might have been related to peculiarly Etruscan ideas on the association of the three gods with the birth of Herakles and the siege of Troy, in which Minerva plays a decisive role as a goddess of destiny along with the sovereign couple Uni Tinia.
At Tibur and Falerii their sacerdos was a male, called pontifex sacrarius, fact that has been seen as a proof of the relevance of the goddess to the whole society. In both towns she was known as Curitis, the spearholder, an armed protectress.
Iuno Curitis is also the tutelary goddess of the curiae and of the new brides, whose hair was combed with the spear called caelibataris hasta as in Rome.
In her annual rites at Falerii youths and maiden clad in white bore in procession gifts to the goddess whose image was escorted by her priestesses. The idea of purity and virginity is stressed in Ovid's description.
A she goat is sacrificed to her after a ritual hunting. She is then the patroness of the young soldiers and of brides.
The Tumultuous Tale of Heracles and Hera
Her cult included the annual feeding of a sacred snake with barley cakes by virgin maidens. The snake dwelt in a deep cave within the precinct of the temple, on the arx of the city: The snake was supposed to feed only on the cakes offered by chaste girls.
The rite was aimed at ensuring agricultural fertility. Virginity is connected to regality: It is a decisive factor in ensuring the safety of the community and the growth of crops. The role of Iuno is at the crossing point of civil and natural life, expressing their interdependence. Many occurred during the presence of Hannibal in Italy. Perhaps the Romans were not completely satisfied with this solution as in BC consul C.
The flamen or special priest belonging to Juno Seispes continued to be a Lanuvian, specially nominated by the town to take care of the goddess even though she was housed in her temple at Rome in the Forum Holitorium. At the time of CiceroMilowho served as the city's dictator and highest magistrate in 52 BC Cic. When he fatally met Clodius near Bovillae Milo's slaves killed Clodius in that encounterhe was on his way to Lanuvium in order to nominate the flamen of Juno Seispes.
Some emphasize one aspect or character of the goddess, considering it as primary: Palmer and Harmon consider it to be the natural vital force of youthfulness, Latte women's fecundity. These original characters would have led to the formation of the complex theology of Juno as a sovereign and an armed tutelary deity.
Silver statuette, 1st—2nd century. His theory purports that while male gods incarnated one single function, there are female goddesses who make up a synthesis of the three functions, as a reflection of the ideal of woman's role in society. Even though such a deity has a peculiar affinity for one function, generally fertility, i. She is the mother and on her rely all vital forces.
Only in her Avestic equivalent Anahita, the great mythic river, does she bear the same three valences explicitly: She bestowed on heroes the vigour by which they defeated their demonic adversaries.
Harmon has remarked that the meaning of Seispes cannot be seen as limited to the warrior aspect, as it implies a more complex, comprehensive function, i. However the internal tension of the character led to a duplication in Scandinavian religion: The divine couple received from Greece its matrimonial implications, thence bestowing on Juno the role of tutelary goddess of marriage Iuno Pronuba.
The couple itself though cannot be reduced to a Greek apport. The association of Juno and Jupiter is of the most ancient Latin theology. These gods were the most ancient deities of every Latin town. Praeneste preserved divine filiation and infancy as the sovereign god and his paredra Juno have a mother who is the primordial goddess Fortuna Primigenia.
Two of the votive inscriptions to Fortuna associate her and Jupiter: Mowat published an inscription in which Fortuna is called daughter of Jupiter, raising new questions and opening new perspectives in the theology of Latin gods.
Angelo Brelich has interpreted this theology as the basic opposition between the primordial absence of order chaos and the organisation of the cosmos. Janus as gatekeeper of the gates connecting Heaven and Earth and guardian of all passages is particularly related to time and motion.
Juno (mythology) - Wikipedia
He holds the first place in ritual invocations and prayers, in order to ensure the communication between the worshipper and the gods. He enjoys the privilege of receiving the first sacrifice of the new year, which is offered by the rex on the day of the Agonium of January as well as at the kalendae of each month: These rites show he is considered the patron of the cosmic year. Ovid in his Fasti has Janus say that he is the original Chaos and also the first era of the world, which got organised only afterwards.
He preserves a tutelary function on this universe as the gatekeeper of Heaven. His nature, qualities and role are reflected in the myth of him being the first to reign in Latium, on the banks of the Tiber, and there receiving god Saturnin the age when the Earth still could bear the gods.
Janus and Juno cooperate as the first looks after the passage from the previous to the ensuing month while the second helps it through the strength of her vitality.
The rites of the kalendae included the invocations to Juno Covella, giving the number of days to the nonae, a sacrifice to Janus by the rex sacrorum and the pontifex minor at the curia Calabra and one to Juno by the regina sacrorum in the Regia: While the meaning of the epithet Covella is unknown and debated,  that of the rituals is clear as the divine couple is supposed to oversee, protect and help the moon during the particularly dangerous time of her darkness and her labours: The association of the two gods is reflected on the human level at the difficult time of labours as is apparent in the custom of putting a key, symbol of Janus, in the hand of the woman with the aim of ensuring an easy delivery, while she had to invoke Juno Lucina.
In it Janus Curiatius was associated to Juno Sororia: Physically this consisted of a beam spanning the space over two posts. It was kept in good condition down to the time of Livy at public expenses.
What is known of the rites of October 1 shows at Rome the legend has been used as an aetiological myth for the yearly purification ceremonies which allowed the desacralisation of soldiers at the end of the warring season, i. The story finds parallels in Irish and Indian mythologies.
These rites took place in October, month that at Rome saw the celebration of the end of the yearly military activity. Janus would then the patron of the feria as god of transitions, Juno for her affinities to Janus, especially on the day of the kalendae. It is also possible though that she took part as the tutelary goddess of young people, the iuniores, etymologically identical to her.
Renard citing Capdeville opines that the wisest choice is to adhere to tradition and consider the legend itself as the source of the epithets. Capture the Cretan bull 8. Capture the man-eating horses of Diomedes, King of Thrace 9. Bring back the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons Capture the cattle of Geryon, a monster who had three bodies joined at the waist Bring back the Golden Apples of the Hesperides Capture Cerberus, the three-headed dog of Hades It was in the aftermath of labor number ten that Hercules showed up in Rome.
Exhausted from slaying Geryon, Hercules drives the captured cattle across the Tiber River and settles down for a nap. While he's asleep, the local bad guy, Cacus, a fire-breathing son of Vulcan, steals four bulls and four cows from Hercules' newly liberated herd, and drags them by their tails into his cave.
Myths and Legends
This backwardness is purposeful: Initially, the ruse works, but one of the bulls outside bellows for his missing truelove and she moos a response from inside the cave.
Hercules slowly figures out the truth and then goes in after Cacus and the rustled cattle. After a struggle, in which Hercules is "half singed, half stifled" by Cacus' flames and fumes, Hercules throttles him, ties his arms and legs in knots and plucks out his eyes.
And that was the end of Cacus. All of this happened, of course, before Aeneas and his kin arrive in Latium in about BC. Eurystheus, who was Hercules' taskmaster, was a semi-mythological Mycenaen king, and the Mycenaen bronze age culture was already pretty well spent by the time of Aeneas' voyage.
When Aeneas finally reaches Italy, he finds a pre-existing coastal temple celebrating the local exploits of Hercules. Evander, a Greek colonial king who lived in the area and who had entertained Hercules, had raised another altar and a statue of Hercules. According to some versions of the myths, Evander was still alive when Aeneas arrived and was eventually an ally of Aeneas. The early presence of Hercules' in Rome was thus a staple of local mythology from Rome's earliest days, and Evander's early temple in his honor was in the Forum Boarium -- an obvious association of the cattle legend with Rome's cattle market, which is what "Forum Boarium" means.