Discover librarian-selected research resources on Arnold Schoenberg from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals. Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher . The deteriorating relation between contemporary composers and the public led him to She wrote the libretto for Schoenberg's one-act opera Von heute auf morgen under .. Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute 15, no. text) for performance in a Yom Kippur service that fall, a month before the disasters of . commented in his journal on Eisler's relationship with Schoenberg .
According to MacDonald93 this was partly to strengthen his attachment to Western European cultural traditions, and partly as a means of self-defence "in a time of resurgent anti-Semitism". Inafter long meditation, he returned to Judaism, because he realised that "his racial and religious heritage was inescapable", and to take up an unmistakable position on the side opposing Nazism. He would self-identify as a member of the Jewish religion later in life Marquis Who's Who n. He and Mathilde had two children, Gertrud — and Georg — Gertrud would marry Schoenberg's pupil Felix Greissle in Neighbour During the summer ofhis wife Mathilde left him for several months for a young Austrian painter, Richard Gerstl.
This period marked a distinct change in Schoenberg's work. It was during the absence of his wife that he composed "You lean against a silver-willow" German: This was the first composition without any reference at all to a key Stuckenschmidt Also in this year, he completed one of his most revolutionary compositions, the String Quartet No.
Both movements end on tonic chords, and the work is not fully non-tonal. Breaking with previous string-quartet practice, it incorporates a soprano vocal line. During the summer ofSchoenberg wrote his Harmonielehre Theory of Harmony, Schoenbergwhich remains one of the most influential music-theory books. In he met Edward Clarkan English music journalist then working in Germany.
Clark became his sole English student, and in his later capacity as a producer for the BBC he was responsible for introducing many of Schoenberg's works, and Schoenberg himself, to Britain as well as WebernBerg and others. Another of his most important works from this atonal or pantonal period is the highly influential Pierrot LunaireOp.
Utilizing the technique of Sprechstimmeor melodramatically spoken recitation, the work pairs a female vocalist with a small ensemble of five musicians.
The ensemble, which is now commonly referred to as the Pierrot ensembleconsists of flute doubling on piccoloclarinet doubling on bass clarinetviolin doubling on violavioloncello, speaker, and piano. Wilhelm Bopp, director of the Vienna Conservatory fromwanted a break from the stale environment personified for him by Robert Fuchs and Hermann Graedener. Having considered many candidates, he offered teaching positions to Schoenberg and Franz Schreker in At the time Schoenberg lived in Berlin.
He was not completely cut off from the Vienna Conservatory, having taught a private theory course a year earlier. He seriously considered the offer, but he declined. Writing afterward to Alban Berg, he cited his "aversion to Vienna" as the main reason for his decision, while contemplating that it might have been the wrong one financially, but having made it he felt content. A couple of months later he wrote to Schreker suggesting that it might have been a bad idea for him as well to accept the teaching position Hailey55— Military service disrupted his life when at the age of 42 he was in the army.
He was never able to work uninterrupted or over a period of time, and as a result he left many unfinished works and undeveloped "beginnings". On one occasion, a superior officer demanded to know if he was "this notorious Schoenberg, then"; Schoenberg replied: Nobody wanted to be, someone had to be, so I let it be me" Schoenbergaccording to Norman Lebrechtthis is a reference to Schoenberg's apparent "destiny" as the "Emancipator of Dissonance".
In what Alex Ross calls an "act of war psychosis", Schoenberg drew comparisons between Germany's assault on France and his assault on decadent bourgeois artistic values.
In Augustwhile denouncing the music of BizetStravinsky and Ravelhe wrote: Now we will throw these mediocre kitschmongers into slavery, and teach them to venerate the German spirit and to worship the German God" Ross He sought to provide a forum in which modern musical compositions could be carefully prepared and rehearsed, and properly performed under conditions protected from the dictates of fashion and pressures of commerce.
From its inception throughwhen it ended because of economic reasons, the Society presented performances to paid members, sometimes at the rate of one per week. During the first year and a half, Schoenberg did not let any of his own works be performed Rosen Instead, audiences at the Society's concerts heard difficult contemporary compositions by ScriabinDebussyMahler, Webern, Berg, Regerand other leading figures of early 20th-century music Rosen This technique was taken up by many of his students, who constituted the so-called Second Viennese School.
He published a number of books, ranging from his famous Harmonielehre Theory of Harmony to Fundamentals of Musical Composition Schoenbergmany of which are still in print and used by musicians and developing composers. Schoenberg viewed his development as a natural progression, and he did not deprecate his earlier works when he ventured into serialism.
In he wrote to the Swiss philanthropist Werner Reinhart: For the present, it matters more to me if people understand my older works They are the natural forerunners of my later works, and only those who understand and comprehend these will be able to gain an understanding of the later works that goes beyond a fashionable bare minimum. I do not attach so much importance to being a musical bogey-man as to being a natural continuer of properly-understood good old tradition!
Arnold Schoenberg (Composer, Arranger) - Short Biography
Stein; quoted in Strimple22 His first wife died in Octoberand in August of the next year Schoenberg married Gertrud Kolisch —sister of his pupil, the violinist Rudolf Kolisch Neighbour ; Silverman He composed a theme song for it with trumpet obbligato, and conducted several shows. He met Richard Strauss, who helped him to obtain the Liszt Stipendium and a position as a teacher at the Stern Conservatory. He returned to Vienna in and formed friendly relations with G. Mahlerwho became a sincere supporter of his activities; G.
Mahler 's power in Vienna was then at its height, and he was able to help him in his career as a composer. Under its auspices he conducted on Jan.
There followed a performance on February 8,of Schoenberg's Kammersymphonie, Op. About the same time, he turned to painting, which became his principal avocation. In his art, as in his music, he adopted the tenets of Expressionism, that is, freedom of personal expression within a self-defined program. Schoenberg's reputation as an independent musical thinker attracted to him such progressive-minded young musicians as Alban BergAnton Webernand Egon Wellesz, who followed Schoenberg in their own development.
His 2nd String Quartet, composed inwhich included a soprano solo, was his last work that carried a definite key signature, if exception is made for his Suite for Strings, ostentatiously marked as in G major, which he wrote for school use in America in On February 19,Schoenberg completed his piano piece Op. In he was appointed to the faculty of the Vienna Academy of Music; in he completed his important theory book Harmonielehre, dedicated to the memory of G.
Mahler ; it comprises a traditional exposition of chords and progressions, but also offers illuminating indications of possible new musical developments, including fractional tones and melodies formed by the change of timbre on the same note. In he went again to Berlinwhere he became an instructor at the Stern Conservatory and taught composition privately. Wood 's direction, attracted a great deal of attention; the critical reception was that of incomprehension, with a considerable measure of curiosity.
The score was indeed revolutionary in nature, each movement representing an experiment in musical organization. In the same year, Schoenberg produced another innovative work, a cycle of 21 songs with instrumental accompaniment, entitled Pierrot Lunaire, and consisting of 21 "melodramas," to German texts translated from verses by the Belgian poet Albert Giraud.
The work was given, after some 40 rehearsals, in Berlin on October 16,and the reaction was startling, the purblind critics drawing upon the strongest invective in their vocabulary to condemn the music. Meanwhile, Schoenberg made appearances as conductor of his works in various European cities Amsterdam, ; St.
Petersburg, ; London, The organization disbanded in About that time, Schoenberg began work on his Suite for Piano, Op. In he was appointed professor of a master-class at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. With the advent of the beastly Nazi regime, the German Ministry of Education dismissed him from his post as a Jew. As a matter of record, Schoenberg had abandoned his Jewish faith in Vienna on March 25,by being baptized in the Protestant Dorotheer Community AKonfession ; 35 years later, horrified by the hideous persecution of Jews at the hands of the Nazis, he was moved to return to his ancestral faith and was recpnverted to Judaism in Paris on July 24, With the rebirth of his hereditary consciousness, he turned to specific Jewish themes in works such.
Although Schoenberg was well known in the musical world, he had difficulty obtaining a teaching position; he finally accepted the invitation of Joseph Malkin, founder of the Malkin Conservatory of Boston, to join its faculty.
He arrived in the USA on October 31, After teaching in Boston for a season, he moved to Hollywood. In he became a professor of music at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, and in accepted a similar position at the University of California at Los Angeles, where he taught untilwhen he reached the mandatory retirement age of On April 11,he became a naturalized American citizen.
In Schoenberg's creative evolution reached the allimportant point at which he found it necessary to establish a new governing principle of tonal relationship, which he called the "method of composing with 12 different notes related entirely to one another.
Immediate repetition of thematic notes was admitted; the realm of rhythm remained free. As with most historic innovations, the tone technique was not the creation of Schoenberg alone but was, rather, a logical development of many currents of musical thought.
Schoenberg's great achievement was the establishment of the basic tone row and its changing forms as foundations of a new musical language; using this idiom, he was able to write music of great expressive power. In general usage, the tone method is often termed "dodecaphony," from Greek dodeca, "12," and phone, "sound.
He deprecated the term "atonality" that was commonly applied to his music. He suggested, only half in jest, the term "atonicality," i.
Arnold Schoenberg - Wikipedia
Other works that present a classical use of dodecaphony are Begleitungsmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene, Op. Webern followed his tone method in general outlines but with some personal deviations; thus, A. Berg accepted the occasional use of triadic harmonies, and A.
Webern built tone rows in symmetric groups. Other composers who made systematic use of the tone method were Egon Wellesz, Ernst Krenek.
As time went on, dodecaphony became a lingua franca of universal currency; even in Russia, where Schoenberg's theories were for many years unacceptable on ideological grounds, several composers, including Dmitri Shostakovich in his last works, made use of tone themes, albeit without integral development.