Soul - Wikipedia
ties as two distinct kinds of properties in relation to mind and body. Substance dualists claim that mind is non-physical sub- stance that does not. of concepts on mind, brain and on the mind-brain relationship, proposing critiques the comparison of the function of all the body organs, to the function of the. relation between the mind and the body, and in order to reach a high standard of moral and There are difficulties to be overcome, but angels that excel.
When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here. Brain, Brainstem, Mind, Soul, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Philosophy Introduction Millennia ago, we embarked on a quest for knowledge of the wonderful structure of man.
The organ that puzzled earlier observers most was the human brain. Despite our many explorations, we remained in awe of this organ. We are now aware of nerve cells, their connections and their modes of communication amongst themselves and with a variety of other structures.
Injury to, and disease in, the brain often provides crucial insights on the role of its different parts.
A dramatic example is the injury suffered by American railway foreman, Phineas Gage in Before his accident, Gage was liked by friends and acquaintances who considered him to be honest, trustworthy, hard working and dependable. A freak accident caused a metal tamping rod to enter under his left zygomatic arch and exit through the top of his skull Barker, The accident left him with little if any intellectual impairment but after the accident, Gage became vulgar, irresponsible, capricious and prone to profanity.
The company that had previously regarded him as the most efficient and capable of their employees dismissed him from his job. His change in character after the accident made this the index case for personality change due to frontal lobe damage. Subsequent studies See, for example, Blumer and Benson, have shown a wide spectrum of abnormal behaviour compulsive and explosive actions, lack of inhibition, unwarranted maniacal suspicion and alcohol and drug abuse after injuries to and disease in the frontal or temporal lobes and their pathways to the deeper regions of the brain.
Similar abnormalities also follow chemical derangements in the brain. Modern marvels such as computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the nervous system have provided significant additional data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging now allows us to further localise function within the structure of the brain and correlate abnormalities of its structure and function. Even so, two entities remain enigmatic: Where are they located?
Do they lie within the brain? Since neurophysicians treat patients with a wide variety of abnormalities of the brain and neurosurgeons lay bare the brain and often work in its interior, can they provide insights?
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Neurologists and neurosurgeons rank high among scientists participating in philosophical debates about what might extend beyond the physical world. They are constantly dealing with patients who have fallen into the deep hole of unconsciousness. In their attempts at restoring normalcy to bodies and minds, they also grapple with life and death. Inevitably, they ponder spirituality and the dominion of the soul.
The Mind We are embodied spirits and inspirited bodies, or, if you will, embodied minds and minded bodies. The term is often used to refer, by implication, to the thought processes of reason.
This changed with the works of Hippocrates ca. On the sacred disease. In his book De anima On the soulAristotle BC— BC felt that man is born with a blank slate tabula rasa on which experiences and perceptions are written to form the mind.
MIND AND BODY by Alfred Adler
Although tabula rasa is a concept traditionally attributed to Locke, Aristotle first referred to it. What it thinks must be in it just as characters may be said to be on a writing tablet on which as yet nothing actually stands written: Jean Fernel — treated mind and brain together in his Physiology.
He felt that the brain refined the animal spirits. Purged of all corporeal dross, they became concepts, finally even universal concepts and the ideas of the moral values Sherrington, He acknowledged the problems encountered in attempting to restrict the mind to the brain. Pinker has recently discussed the role of nature vs nurture in the development of the mind. Dismissing the concept of the blank slate, Pinker wrote: Locke recognized this problem and alluded to something called the understanding, which looked at the inscriptions on the white paper and carried out the recognizing, reflecting, and associating.
Neurosurgeons attempt restoration of the internal structure of the brain to normalcy or correct disordered function in select areas by such modes as deep brain stimulation or ablation. Some operations are performed on patients who are awake. Observations on patients provided clues to the functions of the mind in relation to the structure of the brain. When a patch of brain tissue dies, a part of the mind can disappear: Typically both Heaven and hell are said to be eternal, or at least far beyond a typical human concept of lifespan and time.
According to Louis Ginzbergsoul of Adam is the image of God. God is considered to be the Supreme Soul, with maximum degrees of spiritual qualities, such as peace, love and purity.
However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human beings.
Higher than the soul is the spirit, which is considered to be the real self; the source of everything we call "good"—happiness, wisdom, love, compassion, harmony, peace, etc. While the spirit is eternal and incorruptible, the soul is not.
The soul acts as a link between the material body and the spiritual self, and therefore shares some characteristics of both. The soul can be attracted either towards the spiritual or towards the material realm, being thus the "battlefield" of good and evil.
It is only when the soul is attracted towards the spiritual and merges with the Self that it becomes eternal and divine. Anthroposophy[ edit ] Rudolf Steiner claimed classical trichotomic stages of soul development, which interpenetrated one another in consciousness: Miscellaneous[ edit ] In Surat Shabda Yogathe soul is considered to be an exact replica and spark of the Divine. Similarly, the spiritual teacher Meher Baba held that "Atma, or the soul, is in reality identical with Paramatma the Oversoul — which is one, infinite, and eternal Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but when one is sleeping, the soul is active and reveals "an award of joy or sorrow drawing near" in dreams.
Understanding Brain, Mind and Soul: Contributions from Neurology and Neurosurgery
Plato's tripartite theory of soul Drawing on the words of his teacher Socrates, Plato considered the psyche to be the essence of a person, being that which decides how we behave. He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being. Plato says that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think.
He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn in subsequent bodies. However, Aristotle believed that only one part of the soul was immortal namely the intellect logos. The Platonic soul consists of three parts: Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal caste system.
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According to Plato's theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state's class system because, to function well, each part must contribute so that the whole functions well. Logos keeps the other functions of the soul regulated. In Aristotle's view, the primary activity, or full actualization, of a living thing constitutes its soul.
For example, the full actualization of an eye, as an independent organism, is to see its purpose or final cause. This organization between form and matter is necessary for any activity, or functionality, to be possible in a natural being.
Using an artifact non-natural being as an example, a house is a building for human habituation, but for a house to be actualized requires the material wood, nails, bricks, etc.
However, this does not imply that a house has a soul.