Canada–European Union relations - Wikipedia
Now, EU-Canada relations are stronger than ever, having benefitted in . In , a trilateral EU-Canada-US Transatlantic Ocean Research Alliance was. A quick deal with Canada would demonstrate that Britain is willing and able to its trading relationships outside the EU with a minimum of disruption. U.K. and U.S. trade, as the old empire waned and the new one rose. The U.S. and Canada also have the largest trading relationship of any as it sends to the 28 countries of the European Union in an entire year.
Are the two countries close? The strong, neighborly ties between Canada and the U. The two nations share the world's longest border, which is mostly undefended except for civilian law enforcement, and the American and Canadian militaries work hand in hand for joint defense through the North American Aerospace Defense Command, or NORAD. The nations' electrical grids are completely integrated as well. Nevertheless, Canadian-American relations appear to be at their lowest point in years, thanks to President Trump's decision to levy tariffs on Canadian steel and aluminum imports in the interest of "national security.
Have we always been allies? In fact, Canada's identity was forged in its opposition to its southern neighbor. During the American Revolution, Britain's Canadian colonies rebuffed invitations to join the revolt against the crown, and Canada ultimately became a haven for some 40, loyalist refugees fleeing persecution at the hands of the victorious patriots.
When hostilities broke out again between the U. The war contributed greatly to Canada's emerging sense of self. Travel to Ontario, which saw much of the cross-border fighting, and you'll find monuments celebrating the triumph of Canadian arms over the invading Americans. Did relations improve after that? But disputes over the border persisted throughout the early 19th century as the U.
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After the American Civil War, some Republicans demanded that Britain cede all of Canada as reparation for supporting the defeated Confederacy. Fears of another American invasion helped lead to the creation of the Dominion of Canada on July 1, — now celebrated as Canada Day — which united the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia into one semi-autonomous confederation within the British Empire.
It was the beginning of the modern Canadian nation.
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When did tensions subside? Nevertheless, there have been flashes of disagreement over the decades, especially regarding American foreign policy. Some 30, Americans fled to Canada to avoid the draft during the Vietnam War, which Canada opposed. It also refused to join the U. In addition, the EU and Canada are taking work forward in two key areas: The review of the trade and labour, environment and sustainable development chapters of CETA in line with the commitments undertaken in the Joint Interpretative Instrument.
The overarching debate that the Commission undertook on the implementation of sustainable development provisions in EU FTAs as well as Canadian priorities will feed into this review; The EU and Canada are also working on the operational details of the Investment Chapter, in line with the commitments made during the CETA ratification process Footnote 5.
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Both partners are working together to coordinate Canadian and European research and innovation efforts for mutual benefit, and the Joint Ministerial Committee of 4 December reaffirmed the mutual commitment to continue an evidence-based approach to policies for tackling global challenges.
Both parties are working together to reinforce the links between industry and research and foster the innovation process to stimulate job creation, economic growth and social welfare.
The EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon is, in this context, an important vehicle for EU-Canada cooperation notably because of the strengthened opportunities for cooperation with Canadian partners in the work programme.
Cooperation is progressing also in key areas like marine and Arctic research, health, aeronautics, and agricultural research.
Joint arrangements for researchers' mobility allow Canadian researchers to join teams of European Research Council grantees.
Migration related research is an emerging area for cooperation, while transport research concerning green shipping will be further explored between the respective officials involved. Both sides are developing the framework conditions needed to create a level playing field for researchers from Canada and the European Union to cooperate with each other. A very productive two-day workshop on energy labelling and disclosure policies and programs in buildings was held in Ottawa on June during which experts from the European Commission, EU Member States, Canadian federal, provincial and municipal authorities, as well as non-governmental organizations exchanged their experiences.
Also within the framework of the Action Plan, EU and Canadian counterparts exchanged perspectives on public confidence in energy infrastructures in a meeting by videoconference on 16 November Close co-operation on energy is continuing during in the context of Canada's G7 Presidency, which seeks to advance the clean energy agenda, strengthen and diversify the energy mix and advance the oceans agenda e. Climate Change The JMC's commitment of the EU and Canada to continue an evidence-based approach to policies forms the foundation for tackling climate change.
Representatives from 34 governments of major economies and other key players met to advance discussions on the full implementation of the Paris Agreement and to demonstrate continued political commitment to global action. A strong message was sent to negotiators to advance their work on the completion of the Paris Work Programme and the Facilitative Dialogue now the Talanoa Dialogue.
The project aims to encourage and assist major economies in making their best efforts towards the goals of the Paris Agreement and harness international economic and political relations to move more quickly together towards its full implementation. It aims to facilitate the exchange of climate policy options and good practices, advance bilateral trade and investment in pursuit of the goals of the Paris Agreement, and help improve public awareness, including in the business community, of challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of the agreement.
The project aims to organise expert seminars, visits and exchanges, finance cooperation among technical institutes, subnational governments and business clusters, and support public awareness work of like-minded civil society organisations from partner countries.
In addition to the European Commission participation, the European Chemicals Agency was able to join the meeting by video link.
The positive discussions highlighted a convergence of views in many areas. In multilateral fora the EU and Canada worked together to advance their common priorities and remain close allies on the implementation of the Agenda for Sustainable Development. In the G7 setting, under the current Canadian Presidency, the EU and Canada are promoting actions to address issues such as resource efficiency and plastic marine litter.
The EU and Canada share a common vision of the urbanization challenges facing the world and have already engaged in concrete actions to take forward the NUA. Fisheries, maritime affairs and the Ocean Partnership The EU and Canada enjoy long-standing cooperation on ocean affairs. On Januarythe regular High Level Dialogue on fisheries and maritime affairs was held in Ottawa.
Annual report on the state of the EU-Canada relationship
Both sides agreed on the important role of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations RFMOs and stressed that compliance with RFMO rules needs to be further enhanced and scientific work better aligned with management priorities. The EU and Canada confirmed their interest in strengthening cooperation by entering into an ocean partnership, and are working together on a draft scoping text with a view to improving global governance and policy coherence related to the world's oceans.
The EU and Canada exchanged views on the next steps to be taken towards its signature.
An integrated European Union policy for the Arctic was published in April The Canadian Government is in the process of co-developing a new Arctic Policy Framework with territories, provinces and Indigenous partners that includes domestic and international policy objectives. Canada continues to support Arctic Council ministers taking a final decision to fully accredit the EU as an observer to the Arctic Council.
The EU and Canada continue to explore the possibility of greater cooperation under the Interreg Northern Periphery and Arctic Programme and maintain cooperation under the Joint Statement on access to the European Union of seal products from indigenous communities of Canada.
The alliance triggered the decision to invest in a package of EU-funded Arctic research activities in the Work Programme of Horizon Under this package, three large research projects were launched in Under the same package, a new Horizon project on permafrost, Nunataryuk, started in November Canadian researchers are participating in all four Horizon projects.
Forthe EU intends to align its Arctic research funding priorities to the outcomes of the Second Arctic Science Ministerial, which it will host with Germany and Finland in Berlin, October Thirty governments, including the EU, Canada and the US are invited to participate, as well as all six Permanent Participants of the Arctic Council and several international Arctic science organizations.
The trilateral working group on the Arctic organised a workshop in March in Brussels, Belgium. An EU-funded Partnership Instrument project on black carbon in the Arctic was launched in and will run for three years with a budget of 1.
Black carbon is a short-lived climate pollutant with climate effects that are particularly significant in the Arctic due to its heating effects of the air and the blackening of snow and ice. This project aims to develop a collective response to reduce black carbon emissions and their accumulation in the Arctic, and to reinforce international cooperation to protect the Arctic environment. Specifically, it will initiate a process of setting targets for major sources, in particular on gas flaring, domestic heating and possibly maritime shipping.Is Canada Britain's trade answer post-EU?
This project grew out of an exchange of ideas between Canada and the EU and illustrates the like-mindedness between the EU and Canada on climate and environmental policies. Macroeconomic Dialogue The Macroeconomic Dialogue facilitates the coordination of macroeconomic policies between the EU and Canada, and provides a formal structure to the already-strong bilateral cooperation as well as that in multilateral fora G7, G20, IMF.
The most recent Dialogue was held in Brussels in November and allowed for a comprehensive exchange of views on the macroeconomic outlook and policy priorities in our respective regions, as well as identifying areas of potential mutual interest in addressing global challenges and avenues for cooperation under Canada's G7 Presidency in In light of the persistent uncertainties and risks facing our economies — and the global economy more generally — it was agreed that this exchange would be maintained on its usual annual cycle inwith this adding to more regular contact held at technical and ministerial levels throughout the year.
Their discussions covered a range of matters of common interest, including: Employment, social affairs and decent work The first meeting of the EU-Canada bilateral dialogue on employment, social affairs and decent work was held in Brussels on December The participants discussed the impact of a changing world of work on areas such as working conditions, skills needs and social protection.
Annual report on the state of the EU-Canada relationship
The EU presented to the Canadian counterparts the European Pillar of Social Rights, which aims to build a fair and more social Europe which is fit for the future. Moreover, the participation of women in the labour market and the various gender gaps were examined. Both in Canada and the EU, women tend to earn less, be overrepresented in part-time employment and concentrated in certain sectors.
Various strategies exist on both sides of the Atlantic to close the gender gap. Finally, a discussion was held on how to promote youth employment, considering that young people face a number vulnerabilities and disadvantages. Responsible sourcing and mining Raw materials play an important role in the economies and sustainable industrial value chains of the EU and Canada.
Canada is a major mining country and an investor in mining projects in the EU. Canada and the EU share the same values as regards to economic, environmental and social sustainability, transparency and responsible mining, including the importance of these issues for the developing countries from which many raw materials are sourced. Canada and the EU invest in technologies and innovation for the mining sector and encourage good business conduct.
At the EU-Canada Joint Ministerial Committee held on 4 Decemberboth sides committed to promoting the values of sustainable and responsible mining and sourcing globally. The first raw materials dialogue will take place in Brussels on November The EU-Canada Mineral Co-operation project launched by the EU identified areas of common interest for stakeholders from both sides covering the full mining life cycle, including regulatory frameworks and sustainability issues.
A seminar on the benefits of CETA to the extractive industries and all related services and technologies was organised for stakeholders from both sides. Forest Products The first bilateral dialogue on forest products, as established in Article The parties discussed their respective roadmaps and actions to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement and exchanged information on the circular economy, the bioeconomy, actions to combat illegal logging and its related trade, and plant health issues.
Measures taken in legislation that might impact forest products trade were also brought to the fore. The EU informed Canada of several forest-related research and innovation initiatives.
Parties agreed to continue intersessional discussions and exchange of information. There was a large degree of convergence between the two sides.
Exchanges will continue at working level in the different identified areas. Canada also hosted a high level panel on innovative approaches and partnerships to amplify women and girls' voices during the EU Development Days on 5 June Consumer protection The EU and Canada have been working since mid to agree on enhanced arrangements for the reciprocal exchange of information on dangerous non-food goods.
A specific provision in the Chapter on Regulatory Cooperation of the CETA agreement provides for the possibility for the EU and Canada to establish information exchange on dangerous non-food products based on an arrangement that sets out measures which specify the type of information to be exchanged, the exchange modalities as well as the application of confidentiality and personal data protection rules.
The arrangements shall be endorsed within one year from the date of entry into force of the CETA agreement, unless the EU and Canada decide to extend the date. People to people contacts People-to-people contacts are one of the most direct ways for citizens to benefit from closer EU-Canada cooperation. Through numerous initiatives, the EU and Canada promote contacts in the field of education, research and innovation, youth and culture.
Canadian higher education institutions are making extensive use of cooperation opportunities for academic cooperation. Since more than Canadian students have received full scholarships for joint master degrees in Europe and scholarships were awarded to scholars. Academic cooperation with Canada is also strong in the field of European studies.