Electric shock - New World Encyclopedia
An electric shock is the effect of passing an electric current through the . The purpose is to isolate the neutral wire so that it has no connection to ground. such as a cattle prod or a taser (provided a sufficiently high voltage. When electric stunning is done correctly, the animal will feel nothing. With this type of unit, the desired voltage is set and the amperage varies. . Operators must never double stun animals or use the stunning wand as a prod. The relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration and carcass quality in. This is why birds can safely rest on high-voltage power lines an appropriate connection point on the circuit with thick wire.
Skin conductance can increase by several orders of magnitude in milliseconds. This should not be confused with dielectric breakdownwhich occurs at hundreds of volts. For these reasons, current flow cannot be accurately calculated by simply applying Ohm's law using a fixed resistance model.
Point of entry[ edit ] Macroshock: Current across intact skin and through the body. Current from arm to arm, or between an arm and a foot, is likely to traverse the heart, therefore it is much more dangerous than current between a leg and the ground.
Using Prods and Persuaders Properly to Handle Cattle, Pigs, and Sheep
This type of shock by definition must pass into the body through the skin. Very small current source with a pathway directly connected to the heart tissue. The shock is required to be administered from inside the skin, directly to the heart i. This is a largely theoretical hazard as modern devices used in these situations include protections against such currents.
Lethality[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. December Electrocution[ edit ] The term "electrocution," coined about the time of the first use of the electric chair in ,[ citation needed ] originally referred only to electrical execution and not to accidental or suicidal electrical deaths.
The higher the current, the more likely it is lethal. Since current is proportional to voltage when resistance is fixed ohm's lawhigh voltage is an indirect risk for producing higher currents.
The longer the duration, the more likely it is lethal—safety switches may limit time of current flow Pathway. If current flows through the heart muscle, it is more likely to be lethal. High voltage over about volts.
In addition to greater current flow, high voltage may cause dielectric breakdown at the skin, thus lowering skin resistance and allowing further increased current flow. Artificial cardiac pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators ICD are sensitive to very small currents.
Very high frequency electric current causes tissue burning, but does not penetrate the body far enough to cause cardiac arrest see electrosurgery. Cardiac arrest stunning kills the animal by electrocution.
Head only stunning is reversible. Pigs and sheep which are stunned with a head only stunner must be bled within a maximum interval of 30 seconds to prevent them from regaining consciousness. An interval of 10 to 17 seconds is recommended.
When cardiac arrest stunning is used, one electrode must be placed on either the forehead or in the hollow behind the ears, and the other electrode is placed on either the back or the side of the body. The head electrode should not be allowed to slide back onto the neck. When head only stunning is used, the electrodes may be either placed on the forehead or clamped over around the sides of the head like ear muffs.
Pigs should be wetted prior to stunning. The stunning wand must be applied to the animal for two to three seconds to stun properly. Stunners should be equipped with a timer. Many very small plants have problems with pigs or sheep returning to sensibility after head only stunning.
Their hoist is so slow that bleeding within 10 to 15 seconds is difficult. For plants that use a head only stunner that has two prongs, the following procedure can be used.
Apply to the head first to induce insensibility and then apply a second time to the side of the animal right behind the front leg Vogel et al, This is a simple way to convert ahead only stunner to a cardiac arrest stunner. To reliably prevent return to insensibility, the heart shock must be applied immediately, within 15 seconds after the head stun.
If stunning tongs are used, they can be clamped across the animals' body or applied to the chest. Applying a second current to the chest abolished rhythmic breathing, righting reflex, eye tracking, vocalization squealingand natural spontaneous blinking Vogel et al, The application of the chest electrode stopped the heart. For plants in the U. A frequency of 50 to 60 cycles standard house current is recommended for application to the chest to stop the heart.
Practical experience in Europe has shown that a stunner set to hz does not work. Unconsciousness can be induced with high frequencies but they will not induce cardiac arrest.
Prevention of blood spots To prevent bloodspots in the meat and pain to the animal, the wand must be pressed against the animal before the button is pushed. The operator must be careful not to break and make the circuit during the stun. This causes the animal's muscles to tense up more than once and bloodspots may increase. Stunning wands and wiring should be checked often for electrical continuity. A worn switch may break the circuit enough to cause bloodspots. Electrodes must be kept clean to provide a good electrical contact.
Operators must never double stun animals or use the stunning wand as a prod. Modern stunning circuits use a constant amperage design.
The amperage is set and the voltage varies with pig or sheep resistance. Older style circuits are voltage regulated. These circuits are inferior because they allow large amperage surges which can fracture bones and cause bloodsplash. The distance between the head electrode and the back electrode should not exceed 14 inches. Pig stunners should be equipped with blunt electrodes which do not stick into the animal.
The most modern sheep stunners from New Zealand utilize water jets to conduct electricity down through the wool. The intensity of squealing was highly correlated with physiological stress measurements and PSE. Electrical stunning of pigs on the floor is most practical for abattoirs that slaughter under pigs per hour.
The author has observed that floor stunning often becomes rough and sloppy at higher speeds. In larger plants, a well designed race will produce less stress than a poor one. Pigs that jam in the race or are poked with electric prods will have higher lactate and poorer pork quality. The electric current at the shock end runs through two metal electrodes.
Anything that touches the electric current receives a high- voltage low- current shock, not strong enough to kill a human or a large animal such as a cow or sheep from short-term exposure, but strong enough to cause significant pain. The electric cattle prod is designed to inflict a painful shock to cattle, and thus "prod" them along; the pain stimulates movement. Some higher-voltage prods can interfere with radio and CB radio reception when activated.
Their shape is often subject to guidelines of what can easily be used and handled. They range in length from six inches usually of a more encased rectangular prism design like a stun gunto up to six feet. As the precursor of stun guns, cattle prods also have a wide range of voltage with enough current to operate in the same manner as a stun gun does against humans. A stun gun is nothing more than a beefed up cattle prod and both can be used on humans or animals by design.
Whether it is called a cattle prod or a stun gun, both units are shaped for easy carry and function in the same manner against animals or humans. Most are simple designs powered by 9-volt or a combination of other types of batteries. Anything out of that range is usually too heavy and unwieldy for practical use.
Electrical injury - Wikipedia
Another typical design is a box containing a large battery or battery pack at the handle end and wires embedded in a fibreglass rod, ending with two electrodes in a rubber tip. This design is well-suited for use as a regular cattle prod. The use of electric cattle prods has been debated by many people. If more powerful prods are applied continuously to the skin, the current eventually causes heating, searingburning, and scarring of skin at the contact point.
Electric prods have found favour with torturers. Their first common usage on people occurred during the Civil Rights Movement of the s; prods were first adopted by police officers in Alabama to use on protesters and agencies elsewhere followed; Hotshot later developed an electric police baton.
It works at very high voltage and low current so as to maximize pain and minimize the physical marks left on the victim. Among its advantages over other torture devices is that it is portable, easy to use, and allows the torturer to localize the electric shocks to the most sensitive places on the body, where they cause intense pain that can be repeated many times.
Electric prods have been used for the control of adverse self-injuring behavior in mentally handicapped people. This use is regarded by some advocates to be more effective than drugs since the experience of a shock is very short and temporary while using a drug may have long-lasting sedative effects.