Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool
made in this paper to review the application of interfacial tension in the key domains of following equation: 4. 2. 1. 2 . the surface tension,θ contact angle, η . therapy. However, eye drops are the most common formulation. This model describes the basic relationship between stress and cell shape. Influence of various stages of radiation therapy on the surface tension of .. Contact angle studies of this layer directly correlate with the barrier property of the. The relationship between Contact Angle and Surface Tension finally explained. Shows how Wettability is connected to these phenomenon.
Equilibrium contact angles can be obtained through the application of well defined vibrations. This complexity is further amplified when one attempts to incline the surface. Experimental apparatus to measure pendant drop contact angles on inclined substrates has been developed recently. An automated system allows for tilting the substrate and analysing the images for the calculation of advancing and receding contact angles.
The dynamic sessile drop method[ edit ] Main article: Sessile drop technique The dynamic sessile drop is similar to the static sessile drop but requires the drop to be modified.Surface Tension : Contact Angle
A common type of dynamic sessile drop study determines the largest contact angle possible without increasing its solid—liquid interfacial area by adding volume dynamically.
This maximum angle is the advancing angle. Volume is removed to produce the smallest possible angle, the receding angle.
The difference between the advancing and receding angle is the contact angle hysteresis. A method for calculating average advancing and receding contact angles on solids of uniform geometry. Both sides of the solid must have the same properties. Wetting force on the solid is measured as the solid is immersed in or withdrawn from a liquid of known surface tension. Human biological fluids comprise various proteins and phospholipids which are capable of adsorption at fluid interfaces and play a vital role in the physiological function of human organs.
Surface tension of body fluids correlates directly to the development of pathological states. In this review, the variety of human diseases mediated by the surface tension changes of biological phenomena and the failure of biological fluids to remain in their native state are discussed.
Dynamic surface tension measurements of human biological fluids depend on various parameters such as sex, age and changes during pregnancy or certain disease. It is expected that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional information and might become useful in medical practice. Theoretical background on surface tension measurement and surface tension values of reference fluids obtained from healthy and sick patients are depicted.
It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis. The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy.
We therefore expect that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional useful information in medical practice. Interfacial tension, Biological fluid, Pathological disease, Medical diagnosis Introduction Surface tension is a phenomenon that we see in our everyday life. Many biological performances and natural processes involve an understanding of wetting and interfacial tension where most biochemical reactions occur not in solution but at the surface and interface.
Human biological fluids such as serum, urine, gastric juice, amniotic fluid, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts, endocrine glands, middle ear, cerebrospinal and alveolar lining fluid contain numerous surfactants, proteins, and lipids.
Contact angle - Wikipedia
These low and high-molecular weight surfactants are the common materials in various tissues of the body which control surface tension of human interfaces. The physicochemical processes that take place in these interfaces are of fundamental importance for various tissues and the vital function of body organs.
Despite this diversity, the common feature of various disorders underlies the physicochemical and biochemical factors such as surface tension. Changes in the surface tension behavior of human biological fluid are characteristic for some diseases.
Studying these interfaces and the changes that occur will provide valuable information relating to various diseases and help to monitor the treatment efficacy.
Contact Angles - Chemistry LibreTexts
In medicine, surface tension measurement is above all used in connection with various pathological states of lung surfactants such as adult respiratory distress syndrome, bronchial asthma, and pneumonia. In addition to pneumology, there are other studies evaluating the surface tension of plasma, urine and other biological fluids, however beside this work there has been very little work in relating rheology and these forces to pathological disease states.
A reason for this discrepancy could be that the surface rheology is not introduced to medicine and theoretical studies and characteristics of biological fluids are not well established. Theoretical background on surface tension and its measurement in biological samples The molecules of a fluid experience attractive forces exerted on it by all its neighboring molecules. In the bulk phase, molecules are attracted equally in all directions leading to a net force of zero; however molecules at or near the surface experience attractive force which tends to pull them to the interior of the fluid.
The surface free energy of a fluid is measured by its surface tension and the surface free energy of a solid can be revealed by contact angle measurements. When a new surface is being formed, surface active chemicals diffuse to the surface and align.