Armenia–Greece relations - Wikipedia
Greece has a long history of relations with Iran and has accelerated development of ties with both Iran and Armenia in the last few years. Greece was one of the. Millions of Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks were deported to the Syrian desert. the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan reflected negatively on relations. Greece is undoubtedly one of the countries with which Armenia has deep and vibrant friendly relations based on both common interests of the.
The Republic was short-lived. Ina part of Armenia was absorbed into Turkey and the remaining territories into Russia. The issues raised territorial disputes between the parties. Moreover, Armenia poorly digested the assignment of the Nagorno-Karabach region to the Azerbaijan Soviet Republic to harbor a conflict. In the 90s, the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan reflected negatively on relations with Ankara.
Turkey closed its borders with Armenia, imposed the blockade and dreaded the possibility of military intervention in support of Azerbaijan, but the pro-Armenia Russian threat dampened the Turkish action. The clash ended with the victory of Armenia, which now controlled part of the Nagorno-Karabakh. However, relations with Turkey remained tense.
In addition to this, there was the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline and the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway line, that linked Turkey to Azerbaijan bypassing Armenia. As a matter of the fact, on one hand Armenia did not officially recognize the Treaty of Kars; on the other, Turkey supported Azerbaijan on the Karabach problem, refusing the campaign for recognizing the Armenian genocide.
Even the re-opening of the Metsamor nuclear power plant, on the Armenian border with Turkey, was a source of discord. Metsamor was closed after the earthquake of and then opened to increase the import of energy as a result of the block Azeri-Turkish, although the structure was so old and unusable to be in the EU black list of dangerous nuclear sites.
Erdogan, the disputed genocide, Pope Francis I Inthe constitution of the Party of Justice and Development AKP and the progressive political rise of the current President Erdogan added an improvement in relations with ethnic and religious minorities inside the Turkish society.
Armenia would have renounced definitively to advance the cause of the genocide and above all, recognize the Treaty of Kars. The former ethnic and religious diversity that characterized the Ottoman Empire, had in the accelerating decomposition of the empire from early s, disappeared, namely when the Christian nations in the Balkans began to free themselves and proclaim independence.
It did not take long until the Arabs of North Africa and the Middle East rebelled and freed themselves. The Ottoman Empire was now almost entirely Muslim, and more importantly, overwhelmingly a Turkish state, i.
An attempt to restore the empire's greatness by creating an Islamic empire at the end of the s had failed. Turkish leaders realized that the only way to compensate for the lost territories was to expand eastward and establish a pure Turkish state.Protest turns violent in Greece on 103rd Armenian Genocide anniv.
The desired homogenization was initially attempted to realize by Turkification or as it is also called Ottomanization all inhabitants.
This was achieved through forced assimilation and forced conversion of minorities in the country and when that did not yield results quickly enough - massacres and persecutions. Back to top 6 Who were responsible and carried out the genocide? The genocide of the Armenians began long before During the years massacres approximatelyArmenians were murdered and a furtherArmenians were forced to leave their homes. More than 2, communities were emptied completely on their Armenian inhabitants and aboutArmenians were impoverished totally when the Turks and Kurds confiscated their property.
The massacres ended only when the pressure from the European powers increased and they threatened to military intervene in the same way they had done in the Christian Balkan countries.
However, the main massacres would wait untilwhen the new Young Turk government see question 7 had come to power after a coup in The cover of the ongoing world war in Europe was the perfect opportunity to solve the Armenian issue for good. The means for this are quite simple and consist of the annihilation of the Armenian nation. Back to top 7 Who were the Young Turks?
This committee consisted mainly of officers, military doctors and nationalist politicians and administrators who were opposed to the contemporary autocrat, Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Shakir two of the party's main ideologues. This closed group saw to it that they removed all opposition, both within and outside the party, something that could almost be compared to how the Nazis came to power in Germany.
By brutally eliminating all liberal parties the Ottoman Parliament came to simply consist only of their own party members. Meanwhile disobedient elements were purged. The rulers handpicked key personnel in the police and army corps and made sure to build a network of people who were extremely loyal to the leadership and always obeyed orders.
Back to top 8 What was the so-called Triumvirate? These three, together with some few other Turkish leaders formed the inner circle of the Young Turk regime and were ultimately responsible for the planning and the execution of the genocide in the Ottoman Empire. These were members of the Committee of Union and Progress Turkish Ittihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti who in the revolution and later in a coup in took power in Turkey and ruled the empire with a rod of iron.
They purged the military and police forces from all disloyal individuals and manned these positions with their own loyal people, while eliminating all the liberal opposition parties and rivals within the Committee of Union and Progress. Thus, in they had full control over the events within the empire and could orchestrate a genocide. Back to top 9 What was Teshkilati Mahsusa? Teshkilati Mahsusa Turkish "special organization" was an organization in the Ottoman War Department, made up of special forces and head of counterintelligence and the predecessor of modern Turkey's security forces.
Teshkilati Mahsusa was also in charge of the execution of the massacre of the Armenian population. In addition to trained agents and soldiers, the organization consisted of pardoned murderers, rapists and other criminals who were released from prison, received a short weapon training and put in special units, which participated in the massacres of the Armenians.
Teshkilati Mahsusa is most closely compared with the Nazi Einsatzgruppen, a kind of death squads, which during World War II were primarily responsible for the killing of the Jews.
Back to top 10 What happened on April 24 which is the annual commemoration day? The night towards April 24, marked the first phase of the genocide, which is in present-day research usually described as eliticide compare with genocide and refers to the annihilation of the elite of the targeted group.
Up to doctors, lawyers, politicians, government officials, teachers, writers, poets and other intellectuals who could become the core of a future resistance, were arrested overnight and executed within 72 hours. Only in Constantinople modern Istanbul and then the capital of the empire 2, Armenian intellectuals were arrested and executed in the following weeks. This was the start of the genocide.
Therefore April 24 is the annual commemoration day of the Armenian genocide. Back to top 11 How was the genocide implemented?
Once the core and the leadership of a possible resistance was gone, it was time to remove the working Armenian male population, the one who could rise up in resistance during a future phase.
All Armenian men aged years August and later men between and had been drafted to serve in the Ottoman Army. Only females and males under 18 and over 60 were left. In Februarythe Turkish Government ordered these labor battalions to be liquidated, and by July approximatelyArmenian soldiers had been murdered. The Armenian population now consisted mainly of women, children and men over the age of Many women and girls committed suicide by jumping off cliffs and into rivers to escape this fate.
The complicated relationship between Armenia and Turkey - Mediterranean Affairs
Women, children and old people were gathered in the town churches which then were set on fire. As soon as the caravans of the deportees arrived outside the city and out of sight, they were attacked the Kurdish bands.
With the support of Turkish soldiers they massacred the Armenians and looted them on both property and even clothing. Those who survived the massacre died of starvation and diseases during the long marches towards the Syrian and the Mesopotamian deserts. Back to top 12 In what other ways than massacres and deportations was the genocide carried out? Genocide, besides the actual physical destruction of the members of the target group, aims also to erase all traces of the target group's identity, through forced assimilation.
In the Armenian case, it was mainly women and children who were forced to convert to Islam, adopting Turkish or Kurdish names and thus lost their Armenian identity over time. Another measure of the genocidal process is deleting all traces of the population who have been massacred or driven away by such deportations.
This includes destruction of all buildings and monuments while renaming all the names of villages, towns, rivers, and other things that can attest to the presence of Armenians in the area. Inthe Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople presented a list of Armenian sacred places that were under his supervision.
The list contained 2, religious sites of which were monasteries while 1, were churches.
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A survey in showed that only Armenian churches could be identified within Turkey's borders, half of which were almost completely destroyed and among the rest only ruins of items remained. The authorities have also renamed almost all villages, towns, mountains, and rivers in Armenia and changed their historical Armenian name to Turkish ones. This policy continues even in our days when, for example, the Turkish Interior Ministry announced in that it would rename certain animal Latin names since they had "separatist tendencies".
Armeniana Ovis sheep would be renamed Ovis orientalis Anatolicus, while Capreolus Capreolus Armenus deer would be called Capreolus Capreolus capreolus. The proposal was rejected by UNDP, the UN agency in charge of these data, referring to the unfounded the Turkish reasons for the changes.
Back to top 13 Did the assault and the abuse cease with the end of the World War? No, the massacres, the deportations and the confiscation of the victims' property continued long into the s, when the new Kemalist leadership in Turkey completed the Young Turk policy of cleansing Turkey from its Christian indigenous population, with the slogan "Turkey for Turks".
Another more sophisticated measure was to provide the surviving Ottoman Armenians with passports allowing them to traveled out of Turkey without the possibility of re-entry. So when they left the country, mainly crossing the border with Lebanon and Syria, in the belief that they were allowed to return when the situation inside Turkey had stabilized, they were refused entry upon return and their property was seized by the newly introduced laws that gave the state the right to confiscate "abandoned property".
Back to top 14 What was the outcome of the genocide and how many died? The genocide continued throughout the periodbut the main part was implemented between and All in all, it was about 1. The victims usually include the women and girls who were sold to Muslim harems. Another group consist of women and children forcibly converted to Islam, who adopted Turkish and Kurdish names to escape death. After the Armenian Army re-occupied the region after the war, only in Bitlis and Mush, the Armenian government in Yerevan, through the fund "A Gold Piece for an Armenian" could recover between 5, and 6, Armenian women and children, who had forcibly converted to Islam and lived among Turkish and Kurdish families.
This allows the genocide to actually be termed as a "successful genocide" because in it left a virtually pure Turkish Turkey. Back to top 15 Were there any eyewitnesses to the genocide? There were plenty of eyewitnesses who later told of the terrible massacres and the deportation of the Armenians and had even taken pictures of what had happened. Among these were Christian missionaries, doctors, nurses, school and university teachers from Turkey's allied countries such as Germany and Austria-Hungary, but also people from neutral countries like USA, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, who happened to be in the Ottoman Empire.
Furthermore, there were several German and Austro-Hungarian officers and soldiers in the Ottoman Army, not to mention all the foreign ambassadors and diplomats present in the contemporary capital of Constantinople modern Istanbul. Others were stationed in various consulates around the country.
Many of these reported incessantly about the ongoing violence and massacres. Several published reports and memoirs, books, and photographs of the events. Back to top 16, Were there any reactions from the contemporary world? When news of the terrible massacres reached the outside world via foreign missionaries and diplomats in Turkey, Britain, France and Russia, issued a joint warning about the ongoing massacres and its consequences.
The ultimatum was of May 24, read: The inhabitants of approximately a hundred villages in the vicinity of Van all have been killed and the Armenian quarter of Van besieged by Kurds.
At the same time, the Ottoman government has acted ruthlessly against the defenceless Armenian population of Constantinople. In view of this new crime of Turkey against humanity and civilisation, the Allied Governments make known publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold all the members of the Turkish government as well as those officials who have participated in these massacres, personally responsible.
It would become the starting point for history's first tribunals for not only war criminals but also "crimes against humanity", thus predating the Nuremberg trials after World War II.
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For information see question Back to top 17 What happened at the end of the war when Turkey surrendered? With the signing of the ceasefire agreement in Mudros on October 30,Turkey surrendered.
The general public learned about the extent of the persecutions and the country was in deep anguish and regret about what that had happened and also began to demand the punishment of the guilty parties. Hundreds of political and military leaders were arrested and accused of war crimes. Several of the leading Young Turks, however, had already managed to flee the country, knowing what was to come. The ultimatum at the beginning of the war see question 16 was realized in the Sevres Treaty see question 18which was signed on August 10, Article stated the Allied right to punish the guilty Turks, while Article stated Turkey's obligation to hand over suspects to the Allies.
Trials were held and several leaders were sentenced to death while others received lengthy sentences for their crimes. Enver, Talaat and Djemal and a range of other leading figures within the Young Turk Party who have already fled the country were sentenced to death in absentia. But as soon as the new Nationalist movement, led by Mustafa Kemal, seized the power in Turkey, they halted the trials.
All suspects were acquitted, including those already found guilty. The persecutions against the Christians resumed with the result that Turkey in Republic's proclamation was almost completely cleansed from non-Turkish population, with the exception of the Kurds. Back to top 18 What was the Sevres Treaty? The Sevres Treaty was the peace agreement signed on August 10,between Turkey and the victorious powers, including Armenia. Section six, with six articles, pertained to Armenia and its relations with Turkey, while Article stated the Allied right to punish the guilty Turks.