Tudor Times | Henry VII's Alliances
On the whole, relations with France a particularly negative, as can be seen by the Under Henry VII, France threaten England's national security and Henry's. At this time in , the famous meeting between Henry VIII and relations turned sour after Charles V declared war with France later that year. In this period, Henry's foreign policy is dominated by French ambitions to annex ( take over) the Kingdom of Brittany. Defending Brittany Threatened by the.
Henry and Francis would meet again, inright about the time when Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn.
All of this left Henry vulnerable, as other European powers saw an opening to both gain land, and impress the Pope, through invading or threatening to invade England. Henry made the bet that Charles was too preoccupied with the threat of the Ottoman Turks on the eastern part of his empire to do too much with England, and that was a sound bet that paid off.
As the Reformation played out, France found itself in an awkward position in relation to England. France conducted its foreign policy as if the Reformation never had happened.
It was at that meeting when Francis welcomed Anne Boleyn as Queen, with all the honors and splendour that she would have been expecting as Queen. Henry ended this try by saying he wanted to handle the situation himself. At the same time, he had to be careful to not offend Francis.
- Henry VII of England
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While Henry could bet that he was safe from Charles, France was a different matter. In the duke of Milan, Francesco Sforza, died and Charles and Francis were focused on each other and who should succeed the duke.
Henry did greatly fear an alliance between the two of them. By it seemed like a distinct possibility when Charles and Francis both met with the Pope. It seemed as if all of the Catholic powers were uniting against the protestant ones, and Henry seemed to be in a week position against a league of Catholics. He offered to marry several French princesses, but that never panned out, and he also negotiated marriage with the niece of Charles V, Christina of Denmark, but that also never happened.
Henry started to develop relationships with the Lutheran princes of Northern Germany.
Henry VIII's Foreign Policy towards France | Englandcast
In Henry married Anne of Cleves. This clear cooperation worried Henry. Henry started another period of naval buildup during this time. The French ambassador wrote in that there were ships in the mouth of the Thames, and 30 in Portsmouth.
Remember that he only inherited about 7 ships from Henry VII, so this was a huge building project. He also ordered the coastal defenses to be modernized, and he used materials and money from the nearby dissolved monastaries.
Henry was lucky in the fact that Charles and Francis were clear enemies, at war over lands in Italy, and constantly rivals for eminence in Europe.
Henry could more easily remove himself from the conflicts, and being an island helped to keep him physically apart from them. In Francis and Charles came to an agreement, but within 2 years it ended and they were back at war.
In Henry allied with Charles, and planned to attack France within 2 years. Henry particularly wanted to win back Boulogne, and so Henry committed 5, troops which sieged the city. In September Boulogne surrendered to the English.
The festivities would go on until June 24th, when mass would be said and the Kings would return to their own palaces. The aftermath of the Field of Cloth of Gold is actually not what either King would have expected. Since England and Spain were also allies, this made England look like they supported the war with France, which wasn't great for the friendship between Henry and Francois. Clearly, the political motives behind the meeting were not very successful, but it does leave us with some great images of what this gathering looked and felt like for both countries!
I am named after Francois I wife Claude and am always looking for information on her. Reply Your comment will be posted after it is approved. It was noted that Henry was more inclined to peace rather than war. England and France had been major rivals since and had clashed over English-held land in France for many years — the most acrimonious being the Hundred Years War from to ByFrance had nearly become one cohesive state. The semi-independent feudatories that had existed were now by and large absorbed into the state.
By the time Henry was victorious at the Battle of Bosworth, France had three times the resources in terms of manpower and revenue. The mere proximity of France made it a natural gathering place for those opposed to the Tudors. However, Henry faced a very real problem with regards to France and Brittany. Both had helped Henry in bygone years. Brittany was the last independent area within France and was governed by the ageing Duke Francis, who had been a generous hosted to the exiled Henry.
Clearly, this was something that the Bretons would not accept as it would put them directly under the control of France. Matters became more complicated when the recently widowed King of the Romans, Maximilian, stated his intention of marrying Anne of Brittany.
However, the Bretons could not hold out against the French and in December they accepted defeat. It was now that Henry believed that it was prudent to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy. It is almost certain that Henry knew that France was more interested in expanding her influence and power in northern Italy.
Henry VII and Europe
He announced his intention to assert his claim to the French throne. Parliament voted two subsidies that paid for a substantial force of 26, men.
They crossed the Channel in October and besieged Boulogne. Henry received a promise from Charles that he would no longer give any assistance to any pretenders to the English throne.