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LindSay eLLingSon Loved hiS famiLy and hiS joB. he Loved CoLLaBorating with the Finnish architect and author, wrote that “the essential task of architecture book Hypernatural: Architecture's New. Relationship with Nature in Much has been said about Internet addiction and the new medias and . Social Media and Internet Notifications as Hyper-Natural Monitoring . that we hope may be a message from a loved one or a Instagram 'like', for example, . The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games. [PDF] Hypernatural Architecture s New Relationship with Nature [PDF] Soulful Truth Telling Why is Love So Hard To Find Volume 1 By.
Simply put, smartphone addiction is hyper-social, not anti-social. There is ample evidence to support the claim that smartphone use is inherently prosocial, and by extension, that this prosociality is a core locus of smartphone addiction.
First, the majority of smartphone use is spent on social activities such as social networking, text messaging, and phone calls Li and Chung, ; Lopez-Fernandez et al.
Even less interactive smartphone use, like information seeking or surfing the web, has now become implicitly social: Second, individuals who use their devices for primarily social purposes are quicker to develop habitual smartphone use Van Deursen et al.
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These findings suggest that it is not just the smartphone itself that is addictive but rather the—direct or indirect—social interaction it enables. Gendered dimensions of smartphone addiction provide further clues into its inherent sociality. Current findings in evolutionary psychology and social neuroscience indicate that women are on average more proficient at social cognition and tend to display more prosocial behavior than men Eckel and Grossman, ; Andreoni and Vesterlund, ; Meier, ; Laasch and Conaway, ; Rand et al.
This gender discrepancy is maintained in smartphone use, with numerous studies showing that women use their phones for social purposes significantly more than men do Tufekci, ; Van Deursen et al. According to our hypothesis, the prosocial nature of female smartphone use would render females more susceptible to addiction. Recent estimates confirm this view: Imagined Other Minds Guide Our Expectations Despite minor gendered differences in social cognition, it is not controversial that humans as a whole are a prosocial species.
Beyond amply documented findings in developmental psychology attesting to the intrinsic co-evolutionary links between cognition and sociality Moll and Tomasello, ; Tomasello, ; Tomasello et al.TEDxJacksonHole - Nona Yehia & Jefferson Ellinger - New Architectures: Nature and Phenomena
A recent large-scale investigation using experience-sampling, for example, demonstrated that nearly half of waking time is spent in mind-wandering episodes unrelated to the task at hand Killingsworth and Gilbert, Although science on daydreaming often describes the consequences of a wandering mind e.
To explain the ubiquity of mind-wandering, Poerio and Smallwood have proposed that the phenomenon is evolutionarily adaptive, serving as a platform for offline social cognition. Supporting this view, research shows that all but a small fraction of daydreaming involves social scenarios Mar et al. Moreover, mind-wandering and social cognition rely on shared neural activation, whereby the neural activity that occurs during daydreaming significantly overlaps with that of core social processes like mentalizing and perspective taking — the very processes that enable an individual to socially flourish Poerio and Smallwood, Recent models on the evolution of depression help confirm this social hypothesis for the mechanisms of ordinary cognition.
Again, it is of note that women who are demonstrably more proficient than men at social cognition experience depression at much higher rates than men. Andrews and colleagues see this as further evidence that a significant part of mental life is dedicated to rehearsing social scenarios Andrews and Thomson, ; Andrews et al.
All in all, a growing consensus between developmental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and phenomenology strongly suggests that humans are almost always thinking about and through other people Frith, ; Tomasello, ; Mar et al.
The time is ripe, then, to elaborate a generalized social rehearsal theory of cognition. In the following sections, we expand on this theory and apply it to smartphone use.
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This reassuring feeling of being watched and guided by imaginary others has been hypothesized to play an important role in the evolution of cooperation, morality, organized religion, and large-scale social life Whitehouse, ; Boyer, ; Norenzayan and Shariff, ; Atran and Henrich, ; Norenzayan et al. According to this view, often called the super-natural monitoring hypothesis, we fashioned our Gods and Spirits to better flesh out the imaginary agents that guide our ordinary cognition, consciousness, action, and moral attitudes.
Instant text messaging, email, and social media provide a platform for our hungry need to be connected, but also for our need to watch and monitor others, and better still, for our need to be seen, heard from, thought about, monitored, judged, and appraised by others.
We might call this the hyper-natural monitoring hypothesis. Drawing on extensive survey research, she points out that children and youth born after spent considerably less unsupervised time socializing with their peers than their forebears, and significantly more time on electronic devices. Online-mediated life, more to the point, is always, already real life, and as such, it is inherently social. What current moral panics about digital media often fail to consider, thus, is that the desire to see and be seen, and judge and be judged is precisely about other people.
We propose, thus, to think of this urge as fundamentally normal, and anchored in core mechanisms of social cognition that are distinct to our species.
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On our social rehearsal and monitoring view, smartphones simply equip us with a novel medium to channel innate human sociality.
Their proclivity to induce addiction, in turn, simply points to how much others matter to us and how we want to matter to them. Predictive-Processing and Smartphones If the primary motivation of smartphone use is prosocial, why can this technology lead to such negative outcomes?
We turn to the science of addiction to describe how mobile technology in particular has sent us into a vortex of anxiety-inducing, hyper-excited, hyper-monitoring.
A Brief Venture into the Neuroscience of Addiction The exact nature and neurochemical correlates of smartphone addiction are currently unknown Elhai et al. Key insights from the neuroscience of learning and addiction, however, can offer important insights into our attachment to the strange flickering and buzzing bricks that seem to regulate our lives.
As we have seen, smartphone use is at once constitutive of and constituted by a complex landscape of sociality. This landscape, however, is also modulated by notifications from dozens of applications that deliver beeps and buzzes, mostly to alert us that another human has interacted with us. Social interaction digital or not activates the dopaminergic reward circuits in the basal ganglia See Krach et al. It is important to note that these same circuits are implicated in addictive drug use Belin et al.
These are circuits that are also responsible for associative learning: Architecture in the Wake of Conceptualism.
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Sense of the City: An Alternative Approach to Urbanism. Ursula Blickle Stiftung, San Jose Museum of Art, Seoul Museum of Art, Essays and Reviews Anna Kovler: In the Studio with An Te Liu, Link Ellen Mara De Yachter: An Te Liu, in Vitamin C: Clay and Ceramic in Contemporary Art. Transmission, Art Papers, Fall Issue Transmission, ArtReview, September, From packaging material to modern totem: The Blur in Between, Edmonton: Art Gallery of Alberta, Literary Hub, March 4, Art and Signature, March 6, Casting Shadows—An Te Liu.
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