Indonesian Reference Grammar - PDF Free Download
Bonita R 80 c. contrastive evidences d. past tense e. concessive conjunctions 3 . What does "Farewell" mean? a. say good bye b. say god night c. say good .. B: Well, age shouldn't be something that comes in the way of a person's marriage. posavski-obzor.info causative-. Oh my God! I shrieked. I felt blessedbecause l could enjoy one of God's masterpieces. Event 2: My Perhatikan kalimat ini “ .. they often had to pass through wild and unsafe forest..” yang . e. concessive conjunctions 3. . Often , the most important person/thing is in a bigger bubble in relation to everyone else. Maka mayoritas kalimat tersebut menggunakan SIMPLE PAST tense. 1. Using Simple Using relation process . He prayed to God for help or his family would die of starvation. Few days . e. concessive conjunctions. 3.
Suatu waw conjunction digunakan dalam berbagai kombinasi dengan volitives dan imperfects untuk menyatakan maksud atau hasil. Karena itu suatu pilihan terjemahan dan bukan suatu perubahan otomatis, suatu waw diklasifikasikan sebagai suatu conjunction.
Bring it to me that I may eat Gen. Let me go that I may glean Ruth 2: Open his eyes that he might see 2 Kings 6: What shall we do that the sea may be calm Jonah 1: Itu bisa berfungsi dalam sebuah kalimat secara nominal atau verbal. Itu menggambarkan tindakan dari ide verbal dengan tidak melihat agen, keadaan, waktu atau mood dimana hal itu terjadi. To show partiality is not good Prov. Learn doing well Isa. The effect of righteousness is sowing quietness Isa. Ini merupakan penggunaan yang paling umum dari infinitive absolute; penekanannya tidak hanya memberatkan tindakan verbal saja, tapi juga mood, yang mendukungnya.
Eksegetor pertama kali harus mengklasifikasikan kata kerja, dan kemudian menjelaskan bagaimana infinitive absolute menekankannya. Inilah yang paling umum; ada juga yang lainnya. You shall surely die Gen. Will you indeed reign over us? If her father would happen to spit in her face Num. You may freely eat Gen. The ox must be stoned Exod. Beberapa bentuk telah menjadi adverb yang tetap.
The man shall surely be put to death, all the community stoning him Num. Tindakan Simultan atau Komplementari: They [the cows] were going, going and lowing 1 Sam. You have sown much, but brought in little Hag. Keep the sabbath day to sanctify it Deut. Glory that you know me Jer. Infinitive Construct Suatu infinitive construct juga merupakan suatu verbal noun, suatu infinitive sejati tanpa batasan waktu.
Suatu infinitive construct lebih nominal daripada bentuk infinitive absolute. Tapi itu bisa digunakan secara substantivally ditempat sebuah kata benda atau secara verbal. Muncul dalam Noun Cases: It is not good for man to be alone Gen. I do not know [how to] go out and come in 1 Kings 3: Muncul dalam Construct State: Seluruh klausa menjadi sebuah adverbial clause.
All of it was well watered, before Yahweh destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah Gen. Penggunaan Verbal Penggunaan umum dari infinitive construct adalah dengan preposis lamed, yang setara dengan bahasa Inggris infinitive. Preposisi biasanya menunjukan arah tindakan dari kata kerja sebelumnya, tapi hilang dalam nuansa lainnya. And Jonah arose to flee Jonah 1: Why have I found favor in your sight so that you took notice of me?
The people are sinning against Yahweh by eating with blood 1 Sam. Stop entreating me to abandon you by returning [an epexegetical use] from after you Ruth 2: Gerundive dengan Produk lamed: The gates were about to shut Josh. Hezekiah was sick enough to die 2 Kings Active Participle Suatu active participle menyatakan aktifitas yang berkelanjutan tanpa terganggu, atau suatu kondisi berkelanjutan yang didenotasikan oleh kata kerja.
Itu temporal, tergantung pada konteks waktunya. Seperti adjectives itu bisa berfungsi seperti predikatif verballyattributive adjectivalatau substantivally sebagai sebuah kata benda. Penggunaan Verbal dari Active Participle Saat active participle berfungsi sebagai predikat, penekanannya linear, durasi tindakan dari akar.
Bisa saja tindakannya diulangi bukannya berdurasi. Waktu berasal dari konteks. Diwaktu Lalu while Lot [was] sitting in the gate Gen. Diwaktu Sekarang And he said, I [am] seeking my brothers Gen. One generation passes away, and another comes, but the earth abides continually Eccl.
Masa Depan yang Segera: Terjemahannya menggunakan about to. Behold, I [am] bringing [about to bring] the flood of waters Gen. Diwaktu Depan For in seven days I [will be] sending rain on the earth Gen. Penggunaan Adjectival dari Active Participle Penekanannya bukan lagi pada tindakan berdurasi linear, tapi konsep akar sebagai suatu kualitas. Participle sebagai sebuah adjective tidak mengekspresikan waktu atau aspek. Attributive Adjective To the God who answered me in the day of my trouble Gen.
Penggunaan Substantival dari Active Participle Participle berfungsi sebagai suatu kata benda dan membuat karakter tetap yang digunakan akar menjadi utama. The Keeper of Israel will not sleep Ps. Whoever sheds blood Gen. Remember your Creator in the days of your youth Eccl. My soul waits for the morning, more than the watshmen Ps. Passive Participle Passive participles memiliki fungsi yang sama seperti active participles. Ada baiknya membagi penggunaan passive participle antara true passives dan false passives.
True passives muncul saat subjek sedang dijalankan dalam proses dan participlenya berfungsi sebagai sebuah kata kerja. While she [was] being brought forth she sent to her father-in-law Gen. False passives membentuk penggunaan umum, mirip dengan passive participle bahasa Inggris. Itu mengindikasikan kalau orang atau hal tersebut dalam suatu keadaan sebagai hasil tindakan. Agen atau instrumen biasanya diberikan seringkali dengan sebuah genitive setelah participle in construct.
Your cities [are] burned with [of] fire Isa. Waw Conjunction, Consecutive, Disjunctive Ibrani menggunakan conjunction dalam beragam cara. Selain normal conjunction, ada juga penggunaan berderet, yang mempengaruhi terjemahan kata kerja, dan disjunctive yang memecah urutannya. Daftar berikut ini menunjukan beragamnya bahasa Ibrani menggunakan bentuk ini.
Indonesian Reference Grammar
God created the heavens and the earth Gen. Suatu waw mostly consecutive menekankan urutan tindakan temporal atau logis antar kata kerja and then. And [then] God said Gen. Suatu waw menyatakan but atau now atau beberapa terjemahan parenthetical yang menjauh dari urutan; ditandai oleh pembentukan suatu non-kata kerja dipermulaan klausa.
Now the earth was waste and void Gen. Suatu waw memiliki arti but didalam suatu klausa berlawanan dengan penggunaan diatas. Here is the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb Gen. Suatu waw diterjemahkan even, especially. Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, especially the daughter of Pharaoh 1 Kings So now [and] I will be your servant 2 Sam.
Ask for him the kingdom also 1 Kings 2: And let it be when he lies down that you mark the place Ruth 3: Logical atau Inferential Clause: I was afraid and so I hid Gen. When [and] she finished giving him a drink, then [and] she said Gen. I know you fear God, for [and] you did not withhold Gen.
See also yes—no question. See also intransitive verb. It is called the main verb to distinguish it from the verb in the complement or subordinate clause. A number plus measurement noun frequently precedes a noun to indicate an amount: It usually indicates what the thing is used for. The four moods recognised here are statements, questions, orders imperatives and exclamations. The term is also used to refer to a construction which is negated, that is, which contains a negative.
Thus a clause containing tidak is a negative clause. See also adjective of measure. The negative in a noun clause is bukan. A predicate is nuclear to all clause types. Most clauses also require a subject and some must have an object or a complement. Components of a clause which are not nuclear are called adjuncts. It usually indicates the patient of the action but with some verbs it identifies the beneficiary, recipient or location.
The object noun phrase corresponds to the subject in passive sentences. The object usually stands as subject of the object complement. This type of reduplication occurs only with bases which begin with a consonant and is no longer productive in the language. Important participants include the actor, which is marked as subject in an active clause and as agent in a passive clause, and the patient, which is marked as object in an active clause.
It can only occur if the agent is third person, except with ter- and ke The agent phrase must be a pronoun. The actor, if mentioned, is expressed by an agent phrase. The verb is marked by prefix di- passive type one or has no prefix passive type two. It occurs as subject in the passive of such constructions: With ditransitive verbs the patient can occur as the secondary object. The phrase is built around a head word, which is a member of the class to which the phrase is equivalent. Prepositional phrases and predicate phrases have a different structure.
The predicate centre contains a word verb, noun and so on which determines much of the structure of the rest of the clause. The predicate centre determines the clause type; it is a verb in verbal clauses and one of a number of phrase types in nonverbal clauses, such as a noun phrase in a noun clause.
The noun following the preposition is identical to the head of the embedding phrase and so is replaced by -nya. See also secondary object. Primary affixation refers to no affix, ber- or meN- on intransitive verbs, and meN- or di- alone or in combination with -kan, -i or per- on transitive verbs.
See also secondary verb. Glossary of grammatical terms xxxiii pronoun substitute A noun which is used for first or second person and thus acts like a pronoun. Also called an interrogative. See also reflexive phrase. See also reflexive pronoun. See also locative relative clause and nominalised relative clause. See also primary verb. A sentence can be a statement, question, command or exclamation. Also called sentence adverbial or disjunct. Statements are sometimes said to be in the declarative mood.
It can occur either before or after the main clause to add information to it. It is identified with a component of the basic clause from which the topic-comment clause derives and its place in that clause is marked by -nya. See also object topic-comment Glossary of grammatical terms xxxvii relative clause and possessor topic-comment relative clause. See also transitive verb. It occurs as the predicate of a verbal clause. See also intransitive verb and transitive verb. See also complement verb.
See also active voice and passive voice. It does not contain a question word. See also information question. The work recognises that the majority of such people will not be familiar with linguistic concepts and terminology. Consequently it avoids linguistic jargon and theoretical discussion. The special needs of English learners of the language are taken into account, with more detailed discussion of structures which differ significantly from corresponding structures in English.
English and Indonesian structures are specifically contrasted if the Indonesian structure is one which causes particular difficulty for English-speaking learners. The variety of Indonesian described here can be called formal standard Indonesian. This can loosely be identified as the language of government, administration and the mass media in the Republic of Indonesia.
It is the type of Indonesian in which education takes place and which is used by educated people in formal situations, whether written or spoken. There is only occasional mention here of forms characteristic mainly of colloquial and non-standard varieties of Indonesian. Such varieties 2 Introduction of the language vary considerably from region to region, social group to social group and according to the degree of informality of the situation.
Attempting to deal with what are essentially different grammatical systems together in a single description would result in a confusing hotchpotch and would divert attention from the basic aim of this work, which is to provide a description of the formal standard language.
In some cases colloquial forms are mentioned if they are widely used. However, this is rarely done and phenomena such as the dropping of certain verbal affixes in everyday speech are not discussed.
For more information on colloquial Indonesian, especially the Jakarta variety, see Sneddon and Ewing Even within formal standard Indonesian there is a considerable amount of variation compared with that found in standard English. Where there are alternative structures only one might be acceptable to some educated people. Mention of such differences is sometimes made.
If published sources give conflicting opinions as to the grammaticality of a structure, this is sometimes mentioned in an endnote. Much variation, however, must go uncommented upon, including the tendency of certain structures to be favoured by people of particular regional language backgrounds. Only rarely is comment made on the frequency of occurrence of forms or on their level of formality although forms occurring mainly in colloquial styles are specifically identified as such. Differences in usage between people of different social and ethnic groups make this a complex topic in the study of the Indonesian language and comments are necessarily very general.
Further, Indonesian is a language in a state of rapid change. New words suddenly appear, some to acquire permanent acceptance, others to quickly disappear. The mass media, frequently translating from English, are constantly introducing English words and structures.
With the enormous influence of the press on the language, structures regarded as un-Indonesian or ungrammatical quite recently have become acceptable at least to some people today.
The Javanese language too continues to influence Indonesian, both in lexicon and syntax. The changes that have been occurring in Indonesian present Introduction 3 difficulties for any attempt to describe the language.
A grammar is basically a synchronic statement and little attempt is made here to capture diachronic change, although some important current trends are noted. Structures which were common in earlier language may not be mentioned here if they were not recorded in modern usage. In order to provide a practical reference for most user needs a grammar must aim for a certain degree of completeness.
Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar - PDF Free Download
The present grammar describes in some detail all the major structures of Indonesian from words to complex sentences. However, it stops far short of attempting to describe the various functions of individual words, this being the task of dictionaries and studies of word usage such as Sarumpaet In the production of this work the original author, Jim Sneddon, drew on many sources for information on the language, exploiting the study and insights of numerous people. All published works from which information on Indonesian grammar have been taken are given in the list of references.
While major structures are dealt with in some detail, as mentioned above, the description is hampered by the fact that many areas of Indonesian grammar have not been subjected to detailed analysis. Gaps in our knowledge are found in all areas of the grammar, with a great deal of analysis still being required on the affixes ter and ke This grammar then is only as complete as research on any area allows. An attempt is made to provide a reasonable number of varied examples in natural contexts for all structures discussed.
Examples of constructions are drawn from numerous sources, including newspapers, magazines and novels, television, radio, the internet and, to a lesser extent, from conversation. Others are directly elicited from speakers of Indonesian.
Where a number of words function in the same way a list of examples is usually provided. English glosses to words in such lists are meant as a 4 Introduction guide only.
Where dictionaries disagree as to the meaning of a word, a not uncommon occurrence, the tendency here is to follow Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia The work is in four chapters, each based on one of the four basic levels of Indonesian grammar discussed: Words, Phrases, Clauses, Sentences.
No chapter is strictly confined to describing elements at the level referred to in its title. In particular, in dealing with the function of certain affixes, a satisfactory description must take into account the syntactic structures within which words taking those affixes occur. This is especially true in the coverage of verbal affixes. Because many structures must be referred to in several sections, cross-referencing is extensive.
This attempts to help the reader find desired information as quickly as possible, something often very difficult in reference grammars. This is also aided by a table of contents at the beginning of the work and a more detailed index at the end.
Sections are numbered consecutively from the beginning to the end of each chapter. As far as possible, each section has been designed to be informative if read alone, thus providing the reader with useful information on a particular small aspect of the language. A grammar is essentially a set of generalisations about a language, each structure described being a general description of a large number of utterances of a particular form.
The word perjalanan 'journey' is complex because it contains circumfix per Reduplicated words, such as buku-buku 'books', are also complex, compound A complex word formed from the combination of two simple words, such as tandatangan 'signature', which is a compound of tanda 'sign' and tangan 'hand', conjunction A word which links two clauses.
It can be a coordinating conjunction or a subordinating conjunction, coordinating conjunction A word which links two independent clauses, such as dan 'and', tetapi 'but', coordination The linking of words or structures of the same grammatical type which are of equal importance. They are usually linked by a coordinator, coordinator A word such as dan 'and' which links two words or structures of equal importance.
Also called coordinating conjunction when linking two clauses, copula A word which occurs optionally between the subject and predicate in non-verbal clauses. The copulas are adalah and ialah, correlative structures Two clauses, phrases or words which are dependent on each other, such that neither can occur alone.
Usually each of the units is introduced by a conjunction or adverb, such as the two clauses in Dia begitu gembira, sehingga dia menangis 'He was so happy that he cried'.
See also non-count noun, declarative mood See statement. It is preceded by yang, as in Orang yang duduk di situ 'The person who is sitting there', definite number A number which is or includes a specific unit, such as satu 'one', sepuluh 'ten', occurring either as a cardinal number or in some other combination, such as in ordinal numbers and fractions.
See also indefinite number, demonstrative The words ini 'this', itu 'that', tersebut 'already mentioned', and tadi 'recently mentioned', which follow nouns, demonstrative pronoun Demonstratives ini 'this' and itu 'that' occurring alone rather than after a noun, as in Ini bagus 'This is good'.
Thus, when -an is suffixed to the verb base pakai 'wear' it derives a noun, pakaian 'clothes'. See also inflectional affix, derived clause A clause which is best described as resulting from changes made to a basic clause. It can be either independent, such as a topic-comment clause, or dependent, such as a relative clause, diminutive A word indicating smallness, familiarity or affection.
See also ellipsis, phrase A noun phrase within which a relative clause occurs. The relative clause is said to be embedded within the noun phrase. There are several types, including limiters, such as hanya 'onlyand additives, such as juga 'also'. The particles are pun and attached to the preceding word in writing -lah and -kah.
A noun phrase always has a noun as its head word. The head word of the noun phrase mobil besar itu 'that big car' is mobil 'car'. An adjective phrase has an adjective as its head, and so on. The word sang is an honorific.
Imperatives range from strong commands to requests, appeals and suggestions. If something is not inalienably possessed it is separate from the possessor, such as istri 'wife' in istri Pak Ali 'Mr Ali's wife'. Thus the question Kapan dia akan pindah? Infixation is not productive in modern Indonesian, although a few fossilised forms remain, such as -em- in gemetar 'tremble' cf.
The important inflectional affixes are the voice affixes meN- and di. Most affixes in Indonesian are derivational. See also derivational affix, interjection A word uttered suddenly to express an emotion such as surprise or anger, interrogative See question word, interrogative mood See question.
See also intransitive verb. It refers to an action which involves only one participant, the actor, such as tidur 'sleep', berjalan 'walk', linker See sentence linker, locative A word which refers to place or location, locative noun A noun which indicates location in relation to the following noun, such as atas 'top, above' in di atas meja 'on top of the table'. The three locative prepositions are di 'at', ke W and dari 'from'. It is called the main verb to distinguish itfromthe verb in the complement or subordinate clause, measurement noun A noun which refers to size, distance, volume, speed, weight or temperature.
Such a noun is always preceded by a number, as in dua kilo 'two kilos'. A number plus measurement noun frequently precedes a noun to indicate an amount: Thus buku 'book' modifies toko 'shop' in toko buku 'book shop', modifying verb A verb which follows a noun to give more specific information about it. It usually indicates what the thing is used for. Thus tidur 'sleep' modifies kamar 'room' in kamar tidur 'bedroom'. The four moods recognised here are statements, questions, orders imperativesand exclamations, negation Turning a construction into a negative by adding to it one of the negative words.
See negative, negative A word, sometimes also called a negative word, which negates a construction. The major negatives are tidak 'not', bukan 'not', jangan 'don't'.
The term is also used to refer to a construction which is negated, that is, which contains a negative. Thus a clause containing tidak is a negative clause, nominalisation Turning a word or construction into a noun, nominalised adjective of measure An adjective of measure which is used as a noun, such as berat 'heavy' in berat saya 'my weight'. See also adjective of measure, nominalised clause A clause acting as a noun, nominalised relative clause A relative clause which takes the place of a noun when the noun it would usually follow is omitted.
Thus the relative clause yang biru in the noun phrase mobil locative pronoun A pronoun which indicates position with yang biru itu 'that blue car' is nominaliscd when mobil 'car' is omitted, as in Yang biru itu mobil saya 'That blue one is my car'. It cannot be preceded by a number or classifier or be reduplicated to indicate plurality, noun A word which refers to a person, thing or abstract concept, noun clause A clause whose predicate centre is a noun, such as Dia guru 'He is a teacher'.
The negative in a noun clause is bukan, noun complement A complement which is a noun. Thus, menjadi 'become' has as a complement the noun presiden in Dia menjadi presiden 'He became president', noun phrase A sequence of words which functions in the same way as a noun for instance, as the subject or object of a clause and which has a noun as its head word, nuclear component A word or phrase which is obligatory to a particular clause type.
A predicate is nuclear to all clause types. Most clauses also require a subject and some must have an object or a complement. Components of a clause which are not nuclear are called adjuncts.
It usually indicates the patient of the action but with some verbs it identifies the beneficiary or recipient. The object noun phrase becomes the subject when an active clause is transformed into a passive construction, object complement A complement which follows the object in a transitive clause.
The object usually stands as subject of the object complement. In the following construction the object complement is pergi 'go'; anaknya 'his child' is simultaneously object of the main verb and subject of the complement: Dia menyuruh anaknya pergi 'He ordered his child to go', object topic-comment clause A topic-comment clause whose topic corresponds to the object in the basic clause from which it is derived.
In the following object topic-comment clause the topic is surat itu 'that letter': Surat itu, saya belum menerimanya ' As for that letter, I haven't received it yet', object topic-comment relative clause A topic-comment relative clause whose topic derives from the object of a basic clause, its place in the original clause being marked by -nya, as in senjata yang tidak setiap musuh bisa menghadapinya 'weapons which not every enemy can face', ordinal number A number which indicates where something comes in a sequence and has the prefix ke- such as kedua 'second', kelima fifth'.
The coordination of two units without use of a coordinator, such as the two clauses in rumahku hancur, sapiku mati 'my house was destroyed, my cattle were deadpartial reduplication This occurs only with bases which begin with a consonant and involves placing before the base a syllable consisting of the first consonant of the base followed by e, such as leluhur 'ancestor', based on luhur 'noble'. This type of reduplication is no longer productive in the language, participant One of the semantic relationships involved in an event and expressed by a noun phrase standing as subject, object, and so on.
Important participants include the actor, which is marked as subject in an active clause and as agent in a passive clause, and the patient, which is marked as object in an active clause, partitive A word which precedes a noun to indicate a particular amount. Partitives, such as bungkus 'packet' and piring 'plate', are usually preceded by a number, as in dua bungkus rokok 'two packets of cigarettes' and sepiring nasi 'a plate of rice', passive type one A passive clause in which the verb has prefix di- and the agent is indicated by a phrase following the verb, sometimes marked by the preposition oleh 'by', such as Surat itu ditulis oleh Ali 'That letter was written by Ali'.
It can only occur if the agent is third person, except with ter- and ke. The agent phrase must be a pronoun. The actor, if mentioned, is expressed by an agent phrase. The verb is marked by prefix di- passive type one or has no prefix passive type twopatient The participant which is moved or affected by the action also called the goal. It occurs as subject in the passive of such constructions: Ali ditolong oleh mereka 'Ali is helped by them'.
With ditransitive verbs the patient can occur as the secondary object. Thus, the patient uang 'money' occurs as secondary object in Saya memberi dia uang 'I give him money'. For instance, a noun phrase is built around a noun. Prepositional phrases and predicate phrases have a different structure, phrase head See head word. See also possessor, possessive pronoun A pronoun which follows a noun to indicate the possessor.
See also possessor, possessor A term which covers a number of semantic relationships which stand between a noun or pronoun and a preceding noun. Depending on the context is may mark the owner or possessor rumah saya 'my house'or some other connection, such as originator or creator lukisan Monet 'Monet's painting'or a family or social relationship ayah Tomo 'Tomo's father'possessor topic-comment clause A topic-comment clause whose topic corresponds to the possessor in the basic clause from which it derives.
In the following possessor topic-comment clause the topic is sopir itu, the possessor of nama 'name': Sopir itu, namanya Ali ' As for that driver, his name is Ali', possessor topic-comment relative clause A topic-comment relative clause whose topic corresponds to the possessor in the basic clause from which it derives and which means 'whose', as in sopir yang namanya Ali 'the driver whose name is AH', predicate The part of a clause which says something about the subject.
The predicate centre contains a word verb, noun, and so on which determines much of the structure of the rest of the clause, predicate centre The obligatory component of a predicate. The predicate centre determines the clause type; it is a verb in verbal clauses and one of a number of phrase types in non-verbal clauses, such as a noun phrase in a noun clause, predicate phrase A phrase built around an obligatory predicate centre, including negative, temporal markers and modals.
Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar
For instance, the preposition di 'in' tells that the following noun kota is the location, in Mereka tinggal di kota 'They live in the city'. The noun following the preposition is identical to the head of the embedding phrase and so is replaced by -nya. The following example derives from the prepositional phrase d i belakang rumah 'behind the house': See also secondary object, primary verb A verb which has primary affixation, that is, affixation which is not described as replacing some other affixation to achieve a certain effect.
Primary affixation refers to no affix, ber- or meN- on intransitive verbs, and meN- or di- alone or in combination with -kan, -i or per- on transitive verbs. See also secondary verb, productive a process especially use of an affix which is not restricted to a limited set of words but can be applied to new words, pronoun A word which stands for a noun when it is clear who or what is being spoken about, such as kita 'we', semuanya 'all of them'.
Pronoun substitutes are personal names or kinship terms, such as bapak 'father', translated 'you' if used to refer to the person being addressed and translated T if referring to the person speaking, proper noun The specific name of a person, thing, or place, such as Ali, Hotel Indonesia, Jakarta, pseudo-intransitive verb A transitive verb which can occur without its object being expressed, thus resembling an intransitive verb, such as membaca 'read', in Saya sedang membaca 'I'm reading'.
It can be a number occurring alone, such as dua 'two', or in combination with a partitive, such as setengah gelas air 'half a glass of water ', quantity clause A clause in which the predicate states the number or measurement of the subject, such as Anaknya lima 'She has five children' literally: Questions are said to be in interrogative mood, question word A word occurring in a specific question which corresponds to one of the 'wh-' words in English, such as siapa 'who', kapan 'when'.
Also called an interrogative, quote noun A noun which consists of a verb base which follows a direct quote and is itself obligatorily followed by a possessor, such as kata in "Selamat pagi", katanya "'Good morning", he said'.
See also quote noun phrase, quote noun phrase A phrase consisting of a quote noun and a possessor. The phrase follows a direct quote and corresponds to a subject and predicate preceding a direct quote. Thus the quote noun phrase katanya 'he said' in "Selamat pagi", katanya '"Good morning", he said', corresponds to dia berkata 'he said' in Dia berkata, "Selamat pagi 'He said, "Good morning"', recipient The person at whom an action is directed. It usually follows prepositions kepada and pada 'to'.
With some verbs, especially -i verbs, it can occur as object, such as dia 'he' in Saya memberi dia uang 'I give him money', reciprocal verb A verb which indicates that two people do the same thing to each other or that two people or things stand in the same relation to each other. Corresponding verbs in English usually have 'each other' as object, as in Mereka pukul-memukul They hit each other'.
It is introduced by a preposition such as untuk 'for', as in terlalu besar untuk saya 'too big for me', reflexive The word sendiri 'self, which occurs with nouns and pronouns to emphasise or make clear who or what is being referred to.
See also reflexive phrase, reflexive phrase A phrase which usually occurs as the object of a verb to indicates that the object refers to the same person as the subject. See also reflexive pronoun, reflexive pronoun The word diri 'self, which can occur alone, as in menjaga diri 'look after oneself, or in a reflexive phrase, relative clause A clause preceded by yang and occurring in a noun phrase to give information about the noun.
The term usually refers to a defining relative clause, as in orang yang duduk di situ 'the person who is sitting there', second person See person. Thus terbakar 'burned' is a secondary verb, whose affix ter- replaces primary affix di- to indicate accidental action.
See also primary verb. A sentence can be a statement, question, command or exclamation. Also called sentence adverbial or disjunct. M sentence adverbial See sentence adjunct, sentence linker A word similar to a conjunction but which instead of linking one clause to another within a sentence links two sentences, at the same time indicating the kind of connection there is between the two sentences, such as oleh karena itu 'thereforemeskipun demikian 'despite that, nevertheless', sentence tag A word attached to the end of a question for such purposes as seeking confirmation, such as bukan in Saudara mahasiswa, bukan?
It can have an object but no subject and usually occurs as the subject of a clause, such as mencari pekerjaan 'looking for work' in Mencari pekerjaan di kota tidak begitu mudah 'Finding work in the city is not very easy', simple sentence A sentence which consists of a single independent clause. It contains a question word, such as siapa 'who', di mana 'where'. See also yes-no question, statement An utterance used when we give information, express an opinion, and so on. Statements are sometimes said to be in the declarative mood.
It is frequently something which has been mentioned previously, about which something new the predicate is said, as Ali in Ali sudah pulang 'Ali has gone home'. It can occur either before or after the main clause to add information to it. The subordinate clause is preceded by a subordinating conjunction, such as sesudah 'after', in Mereka berangkat sesudah makan 'They left after eating', subordinate verb See complement verb, subordinating conjunction A conjunction which occurs before a subordinate clause, such as ketika 'when', karena 'because'.
See subordinate clause, suffix An affix which occurs after the base, such as -an in tulisan 'writing. It is identified with a component of the basic clause from which the topic-comment clause derives and its place in that clause is marked by -nya.
Thus, sopir itu 'that driver' is the topic in Sopir itu namanya Ali ' As for that driver, his name is Ali'. See also topic, topic-comment relative clause A relative clause derived from a topic-comment clause. See also possessor topic-comment relative clause and object topic-comment relative clause, transitive clause A verbal clause which has an object and which contains a transitive verb.
Full text of "Kavya In South India Old Tamil Cankam Literature Herman Tieken"
See also transitive verb, transitive verb A verb which occurs in a transitive clause. It refers to an action which has two participants, an actor and a patient, such as membawa 'carry', melempar 'throw', verb A word which refers to an action, such as lari 'run', membaca 'read', or a state, such as tidur 'sleep', terletak 'located'. It occurs as the predicate of a verbal clause.
See also intransitive verb and transitive verb, verbal clause A clause whose predicate centre is a verb, such as Mereka sedang makan 'They are eating', verbal complement A complement which is a verb or verbal clause, such as merokok 'smoke' in Dia berhenti merokok 'He stopped smoking'. See also complement verb, vocative A word which addresses the person being spoken to, such as pak in Selamat pagi, pak 'Good morning, sir', voice The form of a clause which determines whether the subject will identify the actor active voice or the patient passive voice.
See also active voice and passive voice, yes-no question A question which can be answered by 'yes' or 'no'. It does not contain a question word.
See also specific question. The work recognises that the majority of such people will not be familiar with linguistic concepts and terminology. Consequently it avoids linguistic jargon and theoretical discussion. It also differs from linguistic studies in that it does not always describe Indonesian grammar 'in its own right'. The special needs of English learners of the language are taken into account, with more detailed discussion of structures which differ significantly from corresponding structures in English.
English and Indonesian structures are specifically contrasted if the Indonesian structure is one which causes particular difficulty for English-speaking learners. The variety of Indonesian described here can be called standard formal Indonesian. This can loosely be identified as the language of government, administration and the mass media in the Republic of Indonesia. It is the type of Indonesian in which education takes place and which is used by educated people in formal situations, whether written or spoken.
There is very little mention here of forms characteristic only of colloquial and non-standard varieties of Indonesian.
Such varieties of the language vary considerably from region to region, social group to social group and according to the degree of informality of the situation. Attempting to deal with what are in fact different grammatical systems together in a single description would result in a confusing hotchpotch and would divert attention from the basic aim of this work, which is to provide a description of the formal standard language.
In some cases colloquial forms are mentioned if they are widely used. However, this is rarely done and phenomena such as the dropping of certain verbal affixes in everyday speech are not discussed. Even within formal standard Indonesian there is a considerable amount of variation compared with that found in standard English. Where there are alternative structures only one might be acceptable to some educated people. Mention of such differences is sometimes made.
If published sources give conflicting opinions as to the grammaticality of a structure this is sometimes mentioned in a footnote. Much variation, however, must go uncommented upon, including the tendency of certain structures to be favoured by people of particular regional language backgrounds.