Grammar Lessons- Concession - Concessive Clauses With Although, Even though
Depending on where they occur in relation to the base, affixes are called A reduplicated adjective can occur alone, functioning like a concessive clause is a borrowing from Sanskrit: prasejarah prehistory (sejarah history) prasangka. Pengertian concessive relationship. 2Oct ID: My name: Alevtina, Age: 25, Eyes: Brown, Hair Color: Light Coloured, Height: cm. MAKALAH METABOLISME SEL KEL1 posavski-obzor.info Night in Tunisia .. T h e ways of writing, including academic, also vary, sometimes considerably. There exists an .. Which expressions in the text show causal relationship? 2. Match the clauses of the sentences expressing concessive contrast (mixed reactions).
Make 5 sentences about saying agreements! Make 5 sentences about saying disagreement Expressing argument v Yes, I partly agree with you but,…. Number one is done as an example. Western films on television are interesting. I agree with you, western films in TV are entertaining. In my opinion, Internet helps us to have better living in the world.
Anyone willing to work can get easily a job in this country. Your fluent English will help you to find job easily. Television has positive influence for people. Choose the best response to each question. Welldone, Gilang, you have done your exams excellently. I feel very disappointed. Thanks for your nice compliment. Thank you very much about it. The logo is very well designed, congratulation! Yes, you designed it amazingly. What a wonderfull painting, are you the artist A.
Could you show me how to use this software program A. Why should I show you? Do you really think that the film is good? So when one talks about entertaining the masses, out for.
I like to combine fashion and music, so they can be informed and inspired. Describe about Najip Ali external appearance! When does Najip Ali live? In what occasion can you see him? What can his life be related to?
Discuss the answer wiyh your friends. The secretary checked the spelling before sending the book to the publish. I want to be the first to congratulation on your success. If it rains, we had to cancel the parade scheduled for today. Rizwar did not win the competition because he had sung the songs wonderfully. It is amazed that those children can perform the play on the stage well. The beautifully dance has been performance by the art students. Computerized word processing so much fastest than typing on a typewriter.
The M supermarket annual sell is held the first two weeks in December every years. Read the following teks, thean answer the questions underneath! According to dentist, the most important part of tooth care happens at home. Brushing and flossing properly, along with regular dental check-ups, can help prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Giving Plaque the Brush-Off. To prevent cavities you need to remove plaque, the transparent layer of bacteria that coats the teeth, by brushing your teeth twice a day.
Brushing also stimulates the gums, which help to keep them healty and prevent gum disease. Brushing — along — with flossing — is the mist important thing that you can do to keep your teeth and gums healthy. Did you know that tootbrush was invented by the Chinese in 1, AD?
We now have lots of choises in toothbrushes, including different size, shapes, types of bristles and colors. Your dentist will tell you which toothbrush in the right size and shape for you. Most often, however, dentists recommend a soft-bristled brush to minimize damage to teeth and gums. Tooth pastes contain abrasives, detergents, and foaming agents. Fluoride, the most common active ingredient in toothpaste, is what prevent cavities. So, you should always be sure your toothpaste contains this ingredient.
About one in 10 people has a tendency to accumulate tartar another word for plaque quickly. Using tooth pastes and mouthwashes, as well as spending axtra time brushing the teeth near the salivary glands the inside of the lower front teeth and the outside of the upper back teethmay slow the development of new tartar. If you have teeth that are sensitive to heat, cold and pressure, you may want to try a special tooth paste for sensitive teeth.
What are the benefits of brushing and flossing teeth? How can cavities be prevented? What is the maning of plaque? When was tooth-waste found? What ingredients does tooth-waste contain?
What do dentists suggest in order to minimize damage to teeth and gums? There is very little mention here of forms characteristic only of colloquial and non-standard varieties of Indonesian. Such varieties of the language vary considerably from region to region, social group to social group and according to the degree of informality of the situation.
Attempting to deal with what are in fact different grammatical systems together in a single description would result in a confusing hotchpotch and would divert attention from the basic aim of this work, which is to provide a description of the formal standard language. In some cases colloquial forms are mentioned if they are widely used. However, this is rarely done and phenomena such as the dropping of certain verbal affixes in everyday speech are not discussed.
Even within formal standard Indonesian there is a considerable amount of variation compared with that found in standard English. Where there are alternative structures only one might be acceptable to some educated people. Mention of such differences is sometimes made. If published sources give conflicting opinions as to the grammaticality of a structure this is sometimes mentioned in a footnote.
Much variation, however, must go uncommented upon, including the tendency of certain structures to be favoured by people of particular regional language backgrounds. Only rarely is comment made on the frequency of occurrence of forms or on their level of formality although forms occurring mainly in colloquial styles are specifically identified as such. Differences in usage between people of different social and ethnic groups makes this a complex topic in the study of the Indonesian language and comments are necessarily very general.
Further, Indonesian is a language in a state of rapid change. New words suddenly appear, some to acquire permanent acceptance, others to quickly disappear. The mass media, frequently translating from English, are constantly introducing English words and structures.
With the enormous influence of the press on the language, structures regarded as un-Indonesian or ungrammatical quite recently have become acceptable at least to some people today. The Javanese language too continues to influence Indonesian, both in lexicon and syntax. The changes that have been occurring in Indonesian present difficulties for any attempt to describe the language.
A grammar is basically a synchronic statement and little attempt is made here to capture diachronic change, although some important current trends are noted.
Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar
Structures which were common in earlier language may not be mentioned here if they were not recorded in modern usage during the preparation of this description.
In order to provide a practical reference for most user needs a grammar must aim for a certain degree of completeness. The present grammar describes in some detail all the major structures of Indonesian from words to complex sentences. However, it stops far short of attempting to describe the various functions of individual words, this being the task of dictionaries and studies of word usage such as Sarumpaet While contrasts between function words are frequently pointed out, this is necessarily brief; Kaswanti Purwo's attempt to investigate the differences in function between various deictic words Kaswanti Purwo reveals what an enormous task this would be if extended to the entire lexicon.
In the production of this work I have drawn on many sources for information on the language, exploiting the study and insights of numerous people. All published works from which information on Indonesian grammar have been taken are given in the list of references. While major structures are dealt with in some detail, as mentioned above, the description is hampered by the fact that many areas of Indonesian grammar have not been subjected to detailed analysis.
Gaps in our knowledge are found in all areas of the grammar, with a great deal of analysis still being required on the affixes terand ke This grammar then is only as complete as research on any area allows.
An attempt is made to provide a reasonable number of varied examples in natural contexts for all structures discussed. Examples of constructions are drawn from numerous sources, including newspapers, magazines and novels, television and radio, and, to a lesser extent, from conversation.
Others are directly elicited from speakers of Indonesian. Where a number of words function in the same way a list of examples is usually provided. English glosses to words in such lists are meant as a guide only. A gloss does not attempt to capture the complexities of a word's meaning and refers only to its meaning in the particular construction being discussed. Where dictionaries disagree as the the meaning of a word, a not uncommon occurrence, the tendency here is to follow Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Echols and Shadily's dictionary in the revision edited by John Wolff and James Collins has also been influential.
The work is in four chapters, each based on one of the four basic levels of Indonesian grammar discussed: Words, Phrases, Clauses, Sentences. No chapter is strictly confined to describing elements at the level referred to in its title.
In particular, in dealing with the function of certain affixes, a satisfactory description must take into account the syntactic structures within which words taking those affixes occur. This is especially true in the coverage of verbal affixes. Because many structures must be referred to in several sections cross-referencing is extensive.
This attempts to help the reader find desired information as quickly as possible, something often very difficult in reference grammars. This is also aided by a table of contents at the beginning of the work and a more detailed index at the end. Sections are numbered consecutively from the beginning to the end of each chapter. As far as possible, each section has been designed to be informative if read alone, thus providing the reader with useful information on a particular small aspect of the language.
A grammar is essentially a set of generalisations about a language, each structure described being a general description of a large number of utterances of a particular form.
In order for structures to be conveniently discussed labels must be applied to them.
These labels are called grammatical terms. Grammatical terms used in this work are defined in the section dealing with the structure they label. A glossary of common terms is also provided. Terms used are basically the common terms of traditional grammar, although some are used here in a somewhat different way from what is usual in grammars of English. Moreover, a few terms have been coined here specifically to meet the needs of Indonesian grammar.
However, an effort is made to keep the the number of grammar terms to a minimum. Spelling used in this work is the official Ejaan yang disempurnakan, introduced in see, for instance, Kridalaksana Punctuation is usually retained as it occurred in written examples, although this results in some inconsistency, mainly in the use of commas.
In this grammar the level of phonology is not dealt with. Adequate non-technical descriptions of the sounds are given in a number of teaching texts, such as Johns More detailed discussion of phonology requires a level of technical description not informative to people without a linguistics training and for this reason is excluded.
Levels of grammar above the sentence are not dealt with either. Indonesian discourse structure still awaits adequate analysis and, further, it is felt that a description of higher levels would not be perceived by many users as having the practical value of lower-level analysis.
Nevertheless, a study of Indonesian paragraph and discourse structure along the lines of the present work would be a worthy project for a future date. Much about the Indonesian language apart from its grammar could not be included in the present study. A brief discussion of the history of the language and its position within presentday Indonesian society can be found in the Introduction to Worsley In the production of this work a number of grammars of English were consulted, including Quirk and Greenbaum and Leech and Svartvik Collins Cobuild English Grammar was especially valuable and has had an important influence on the nature of this work.
A simple word consists solely of a base, which cannot be broken down into smaller units. A base carries the essential meaning of a word and is the part of the word listed alphabetically in a dictionary. Examples of simple words are buku 'booklebar 'wide', duduk 'sit. A word can be complex in a number of ways, it can consist of reduplicated bases, such as buku-buku 'books.
Reduplication is discussed in sections 1. It can be a compound of two bases, such as asal-usul 'origin'. Compounds are discussed in paragraphs 1. A word can also consist of a base with one or more affixes, such as membukukan 'enter in a bookdiperlebar 'widenedkedudukan 'situation.
There are three types of affix in Indonesian: A prefix is attached before the base. When a prefix is discussed separately it is indicated by a hyphen after it, such as ber. A suffix comes after a base, indicated by hyphen before it: A circumfix contains two parts, one occurring before the base and one after. When a circumfix is mentioned separately the two parts are separated by three dots, this indicating the position of the base: When only the first part of a circumfix is referred to, the term 'prefix is used.
A fourth type of affix, the infix, is not part of the system of modern Indonesian, although its earlier occurrence is seen from a few fossilised forms, discussed in sections 1. An infix is placed after the first consonant sound of a base; when referred to separately an infix has hyphens placed before and after it: The major changes are discussed in sections 1.
Other sound changes affecting affixes are minor and are dealt with in discussion of the individual affixes. The following symbols are used in the discussion of such sound changes. Prefixes ber- per- ter- 1. The r of the prefix is lost under the following circumstances: The ter- forms are regarded by some as substandard and are not listed in all dictionaries.
In some dictionaries teis regarded as part of the base rather than as a prefix: N can appear as one of the nasals m, n, ny, ng, or as zero. Sometimes the nasal comes before the first sound of the base and sometimes it replaces the first sound. Exceptions to the rules are given in section 1. N becomes ng before a vowel If the word begins with a vowel prefix meng- is attached: Initial p is lost: Initial t is lost: Initial s is lost: Initial k is lost: If s is not lost N becomes n.
With the exception of verbs beginning with perC, this is almost entirely confined to words borrowed from other languages. The initial sound is most likely to be retained if the word is still felt to be foreign. Thus retention of the sound is common in words beginning with consonant clusters, which do not occur in indigenous words: As a borrowing becomes more accepted as an Indonesian word the tendency increases for people to use the more regular form without the initial consonant of the base.
During a transition period both forms occur: Thus, mentaati and menaati 'obey' continue to exist side-by-side, while after many years of use menterjemahkan 'translate' was completely replaced by menerjemahkan in a very short period during the mids.
In a few non-borrowed words base-initial p remains. The word mempengaruhi 'influencefrom base pengaruh, may result from interpretation of the word as having prefix peN.
However, mempunyai 'possess', from base punya, must be regarded as an exception in the modern language. Prefix peng- occurs with the bases lihat, rajin and lepas: During the early s there was an increasing tendency for pengrajin to be regularised as perajin.
Initial sy is lost from the base syair: The frequency of either form depends both on the individual base and personal preference: The indigenous word tahu 'know is interpreted as a single syllable and only the prefixes menge- and penge- occur with it: On the other hand, Badudu In the passive of this word ke- is retained: With the borrowed word tik 'type ke- optionally occurs in the passive: Because of this both ketik and tik are recognised as bases.
Some people regard menge- as containing a prefix ke- which functions to form a twosyllable base, such forms being the most common base in indigenous words. The retention of nge in reduplicated bases see 1.
The symbol R represents full base reduplication see 1. The individual affixes, their functions and the combinations in which they occur are discussed from section 1. Some general word-forming processes are not -restricted to particular classes of words; these are the various types of reduplication and compounding.
Some word-forming processes, including some forms of affixation, are productive. That is, the process is not restricted to particular words but can be applied to new words as they appear in the language or to already existing words to which it has not been applied before. Some processes, such as infixing, are not productive; the process occurs only with particular words.
Where a process is not productive this is pointed out in the relevant section. Full reduplication involves repeating the entire word. The two parts of the word are separated by a hyphen in writing and the second is treated as the reduplicated part. Free bases can be reduplicated: A word consisting of an affix or more than one affix plus base can be reduplicated: A base can be reduplicated and affixes can then be added to the reduplicated base: Full reduplication has many functions.
Sometimes reduplication of bases cannot be discussed separately from a consideration of the affixes with which it occurs. For instance, the function of the reduplication of the bases in kuda-kudaan 'toy horse and sebesar-besarnya 'as big as possible is dependent on the particular combination of base and affix and cannot be described free from the overall forms in which it occurs.
Such reduplication is discussed under the individual affixes. On the other hand, most full reduplication of words, whether simple or complex, and of some bases in complex words, can be described free from a consideration of the particular affixes accompanying it. Such reduplication is discussed in the following sections. Such forms are often treated as single bases in dictionaries, although usually written with a hyphen.
Such forms include tiba-tiba 'suddenly', sia-sia 'futile', pura-pura 'pretend', megap-megap 'pant', masing-masing 'each'. Although single bases with the same form sometimes occur these are chance similarities. Thus the word tiba 'arrive' has no relationship at least in modern Indonesian to tiba-tiba 'suddenly'. Reduplication of nouns 1. Some nouns consisting of repeated forms are of the type mentioned in 1.
Many of these words are names of plants and animals, types of food, and instruments, although such formations are not confined to these categories: Sometimes a reduplicated form refers to something having two or more similar parts; a single base rarely or never occurs: Dictionaries inconsistently list such reduplicated forms under the single base or as separate entries.
Thus kuda-kuda 'horses', mata-mata rantai 'links of a chain'. Both simple and complex nouns can be reduplicated to indicate plurality: In the first example below the number makes plurality specific, while in the second sentence plurality is clear from the general context; one does not usually buy a single shoe: Menteri mengunjungi tiga negeri asing.
The minister visited three foreign countries. Saya harus membeli sepatu baru. I must buy new shoes. Sometimes, however, a speaker does use reduplication even though plurality is clear from context: Reduplication does not occur if a whole class of things is referred to.
ning nong ning gung: Concessive Relationship
Neither noun in the following sentence can be reduplicated: It is sometimes stated that reduplication of nouns indicates variety rather than plurality although plurality is implied by variety. Indonesian writers disagree on this question, but clearly reduplication can be used where variety is of no importance.
In the following sentences there is no focus at all on variation among the mango trees, links of the chain or water containers; what is stressed is that there is more than one: Rumahnya dekat pohon-pohon mangga itu.
His house is near those mango trees. Mata-mata rantai berbentuk bulat. The links of the chain are round. Pada pinggangnya terikat bumbung-bumbung kosong. At his waist are tied empty bamboo water containers. Reduplication is not normally used in reference to things which come in pairs, such as certain body parts. Where it is felt necessary to indicate plurality in such cases belah 'half; one of something which comes in a pair' is usually used see 2. When a noun is followed by a modifying noun see 2.
When a noun and a following possessive noun both refer to more than one it is often possible to repeat either noun: These sentences are taken from Simatupang Indonesians display a great deal of uncertainty and disagreement as to what is permissible when reduplicating constructions involving two nouns noun with following modifying or possessive noun. Mengapa hanya saya-saya yang selalu diberi tugas yang berat ini?
Why is it always poor old me who gets these jobs? Jangan berbuat gaduh di sini, beliau-beliau sedang rapat! Don't be noisy, the big shots are having a meeting! For mereka reduplication conveys emphasis; the pronoun is usually followed by a relative clause introduced by yang: Mereka-mereka yang belum terdaftar harap lekas mendaftarkan diri. Those who aren't enrolled yet should enrol as soon as possible. Your drawings are beautiful.
Kecil-kecil, si Ali sudah pacaran. Although young, Ali already has a girl friend. Sakit-sakit, dia pergi juga ke sekolah.
Although sick, he still went to school. Anak itu berteriak keras-keras. The child screamed loudly. Instead, bases are repeated and affixes then attached to them. There are several functions. Bu Yem mengurut-urut rambut anaknya. Mrs Yem stroked her child's hair a number of times. Potongan kayu itu terapung-apung di atas air. The piece of wood floated on the water. Dia berteriak-teriak memanggil pelayan.
He shouted and shouted for the waiter.
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Sudah dua hari Pak Tanto tidak muncul-muncul. Mr Tanto hasn't turned up for two days now. Perembukan mereka tidak menyinggung-nyinggung masalah pemerintah persatuan nasional. Bangun-bangun mereka sudah bertengkar.
No sooner were they awake than they began to argue. Reduplication of numbers 1. Speak one at a time. They came in two at a time. The numbers can also be separated by demi or per see 2.
Numbers for 'two' to 'four' can also occur with prefix ber- see 1. It involves placing before the base a syllable consisting of the first consonant of the base followed by e. This type of reduplication is no longer productive in the language; it occurs with a few bases, mainly nouns, and cannot be applied to others. The reduplicated word has a meaning which is the same as that of the single form or related to.
Sometimes, as in the first example below, the historical relationship is not obvious: Nouns, adjectives and verbs can all undergo imitative reduplication.
The variation between the two parts of the word can involve either consonants or vowels. Imitative reduplication is not productive; new forms cannot be created nor can the two parts of the word change places. Frequently only the first component of the word occurs as a simple word.