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Hemoglobin is a chemical molecule in the red blood cell RBC that carries oxygen on specific binding sites. Each Hgb molecule, if fully saturated, can bind four oxygen molecules.
Depending on conditions, Hgb releases some percentage of the oxygen molecules to the tissues when the RBC passes through the capillaries. We can measure how many of these binding sites are combined, or saturated, with oxygen. What Is Arterial PaO2 Pa02, put simply, is a measurement of the actual oxygen content in arterial blood. Partial pressure refers to the pressure exerted on the container walls by a specific gas in a mixture of other gases.
What’s The Difference Between Oxygen Saturation And PaO2?
When dealing with gases dissolved in liquids like oxygen in blood, partial pressure is the pressure that the dissolved gas would have if the blood were allowed to equilibrate with a volume of gas in a container. In other words, if a gas like oxygen is present in an air space like the lungs and also dissolved in a liquid like blood, and the air space and liquid are in contact with each other, the two partial pressures will equalize. The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve Shows the Difference To see why this is relevant, look at the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve.
As the partial pressure of oxygen rises, there are more and more oxygen molecules available to bind with Hgb.
inspired oxygen fio2: Topics by posavski-obzor.info
As each of the four binding sites on an Hgb molecule binds to an oxygen molecule, its attraction to the next oxygen molecule increases and continues to increase as successive molecules of oxygen bind.
The more oxygen is bound, the easier it is for the next oxygen molecule to bind, so the speed of binding increases and the oxygen saturation percentage rises rapidly on the curve. As all of the binding sites fill up, very little additional binding occurs and the curve levels out as the hemoglobin becomes saturated with oxygen. This tendency makes it easy for Hgb to rapidly pick up oxygen in the lungs as it passes through.
As PaO2 falls, the Hgb saturation also falls as Hgb releases oxygen to the tissues in the areas of lower oxygen supply. This is because Hgb binding sites become less attracted to oxygen as it is bound to fewer oxygen molecules.
Understanding Blood Oxygen Levels During Exercise | LoveToKnow
This property allows Hgb to rapidly release oxygen to the tissues. Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart to be pumped to the lungs and the cycle repeats. Since a normal PaO2 is between mmHg, some people may think that an O2 saturation of 90 is normal as well — after all 90 was a pretty good grade to get in school.
However, this interpretation is very wrong. In this case, you may notice levels as low as 92 percent. However, when you stop exercising, these levels will return to your normal reading. The better shape you are in, the more quickly you will see these levels return to normal range. Interestingly, venous measurements are always quite a bit lower than their arterial counterparts.
However, this makes sense since this represents the blood that has already had the oxygen extracted.
Logically, then, your venous blood oxygen levels gradually decrease as the intensity of your workout increases, showing that your body is using the oxygen you're taking in. Why It Matters Oxygen, apart from all of its other vital roles in the body, is required for fast, efficient energy production. Granted, your body can still burn fuel without oxygen, but this method is slow, inefficient, and a little clumsy. If your arterial oxygen levels remain high during exercise, this is a good indication your body is well-adapted and can continue to bring in and process enough of the gas, even when you're working at high intensities.
Low blood oxygen levels could also be a signal of certain health conditions, in addition to a low level of fitness. The Traditional Approach Masimo MightySat The most commonly used method of measuring blood oxygen levels in hospitals is a small device - resembling a clip - called a pulse oximeter.
The oximeter is placed on a small, translucent part of your body like a finger tip or ear lobe where there isn't a whole lot going on.
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By shining a light through your skin to a sensor on the other side, the device very cleverly uses the color of your arterial blood to estimate the amount of oxygen contained within. Home Versions This same technology can now be found in both fitness trackers and cellphones with varying degrees of reliability. Fitness trackers, which you generally wear on the wrist, can encounter problems though. After all, there are bones, muscle, connective tissue, and veins in the wrist that can all distort the reading the device produces.
When smartphones attempt to use this technique, it's usually accomplished by having the user place a finger tip over the flash and camera lens. For most people, either smart phone apps or wearables will be the tool of choice for measuring blood oxygen levels while exercising. As mentioned, however, this may not be reliable.
It should be noted this application of pulse oximeter technology is fairly new and really hasn't been well studied.