normal human development. Bowlby () defines attachment as an enduring emotional bond which an. The parent-child relationship serves as a prototype for . Keywords: Attachment, Attachment relationships, Infant-parent attachment . a normally developing child will develop an attachment relationship with any. This kind of relationship is key to healthy development, say Research over many decades has shown that a secure relationship is the most.
The Guilford Press,pages Parenting for a secure attachment has two themes: Advertisement X The Science of Happiness: A Greater Good Gathering. Join us May for an immersive event! Children who have secure attachments tend to be happier, kinder, more socially competent, and more trusting of others, and they have better relations with parents, siblings, and friends.
They do better in school, stay physically healthier, and create more fulfilling relationships as adults.
Unfortunately, there is confusion in the popular media about what a secure attachment is and how to foster it. This is partly because scientists have done a poor job at communicating the idea beyond the walls of academe.
How to Cultivate a Secure Attachment with Your Child
It is the sense of being loved and supported no matter what happens. And when children feel secure, a world of possibilities opens up. Hoffman, Cooper, and Powell distill the wisdom of attachment theory into an accessible and practical approach called the Circle of Security.
The circle represents the ebb and flow of how babies and young children need their caregivers—at times coming close for care and comfort, and at other times following their inspiration to explore the world around them. The reactions of the infants to their reunion with the caregiver after a brief separation were used to assess how much trust the children had in the accessibility of their attachment figure.
The procedure consists of eight episodes, of which the last seven ideally take three minutes. Infants are confronted with three stressful components: Three patterns of attachment can be distinguished on the basis of infants' reactions to the reunion with the parent or other caregiver.
Infants who actively seek proximity to their caregivers on reunion, communicate their feelings of stress and distress openly and then readily return to exploration are classified as secure B. Infants who do not seem to be distressed and ignore or avoid the caregiver after being reunited although physiological research shows their arousal 3 are classified as insecure-avoidant A.
Infants who combine strong contact maintenance with contact resistance, or remain inconsolable without being able to return to explore the environment, are classified as insecure-ambivalent C.
Besides the classic tripartite ABC classifications, Main and Solomon4 proposed a fourth classification, disorganized attachment Dwhich is not discussed here. Research Context The basic model of explaining differences in attachment relationships assumes that sensitive or insensitive parenting determines infant attachment in- security.
Lack of responsiveness or inconsistent sensitivity has indeed been found to be associated with insecurity in children, and consistent sensitive responsiveness with secure bonds.
Key Research Questions Crucial research questions explore the causal role of sensitive parenting in the development of infant attachment security. These questions have been addressed in twin studies comparing attachments of mono- and dizygotic twins within the same family, and in experimental intervention studies designed to enhance parental sensitivity in order to improve the infant attachment relationship.
Recent Research Results Four twin studies on child-mother attachment security using behavioural genetic modelling have been published to date. Three of the four studies document a minor role for genetic influences on differences in attachment security and a rather substantial role for shared environment.
Differences in attachment relationships are mainly caused by nurture rather than nature, although the bias to become attached is inborn. Is sensitive parenting the core ingredient of the shared environment? In general, attachment insecurity appeared more difficult to change than maternal insensitivity. When interventions were more effective in enhancing parental sensitivity, they were also more effective in enhancing attachment security, which experimentally supports the notion of a causal role of sensitivity in shaping attachment.
Human beings are born with the innate bias to become attached to a protective caregiver. But infants develop different kinds of attachment relationships: These individual differences are not genetically determined but are rooted in interactions with the social environment during the first few years of life. Sensitive or insensitive parenting plays a key role in the emergence of secure or insecure attachments, as has been documented in twin studies and experimental intervention studies.
In the case of attachment theory, the nurture assumption8 is indeed warranted.
Numerous findings confirm the core hypothesis that sensitive parenting causes infant attachment security, although other causes should not be ruled out.
Parents are therefore entitled to receive social support from policy-makers and mental-health workers to do the best job they can in raising their vulnerable children. Sensitive parenting is hard work and does not come naturally to many parents, who have to find their way even if they had few positive childhood experiences of their own.
It takes a village to raise a child,14 so parents need to rely on good-quality non-parental care to combine childrearing with other obligations.
Attachment: Impact on children's development | Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
From our meta-analysis, we concluded that the most effective interventions for enhancing sensitive parenting and infant attachment security used a moderate number of sessions and a clear-cut behavioural focus, starting no sooner than six months after birth. From an applied attachment perspective, young parents should be given access to preventive support programs that incorporate these evidence-based insights.
Attachment and loss; vol.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; Spangler G, Grossmann KE. Biobehavioral organization in securely and insecurely attached infants.