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(Photo: Screenshot / Youtube). 5 amazing symbiotic animal relationships you didn't know about (Photo: njsphotography/Shutterstock). Originally a mutualistic symbiotic relationship comes to mind as the Oxpecker is eating Text & Photos by Wildlife ACT Monitor Kerryn Bullock. Predators and prey regulate each other's population dynamics. Also, many species in predator-prey relationships have evolved adaptations—beneficial features.
In coral reefswhen fish such as the grouper and coral trout spot prey that is inaccessible to them, they signal to giant moray eelsNapoleon wrasses or octopuses.
These predators are able to access small crevices and flush out the prey. Solitary predators have more chance of eating what they catch, at the price of increased expenditure of energy to catch it, and increased risk that the prey will escape.
These include speed, agility, stealth, sharp senses, claws, teeth, filters, and suitable digestive systems.
Many predators have acute hearing, and some such as echolocating bats hunt exclusively by active or passive use of sound. Some predators such as snakes and fish-eating birds like herons and cormorants swallow their prey whole; some snakes can unhinge their jaws to allow them to swallow large prey, while fish-eating birds have long spear-like beaks that they use to stab and grip fast-moving and slippery prey.
Lions can attack much larger prey, including elephants, but do so much less often. Predators are often highly specialized in their diet and hunting behaviour; for example, the Eurasian lynx only hunts small ungulates.
10 Dumbfounding Examples of Predator-Prey Relationships
When prey have a clumped uneven distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is predicted to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly;  this appears to be correct for predators of immobile prey, but is doubtful with mobile prey. This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey.
Size may also act as a refuge for large prey. For example, adult elephants are relatively safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable.
Predation & herbivory
Members of the cat family such as the snow leopard treeless highlandstiger grassy plains, reed swampsocelot forestfishing cat waterside thicketsand lion open plains are camouflaged with coloration and disruptive patterns suiting their habitats.
Female Photuris firefliesfor example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies, which they capture and eat. Venom and Evolution of snake venom Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom to subdue their prey,  and venom can also aid in digestion as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders.
These changes are explained by the fact that its prey does not need to be subdued. Antipredator adaptation To counter predation, prey have a great variety of defences.
They can try to avoid detection. They can detect predators and warn others of their presence. If detected, they can try to avoid being the target of an attack, for example, by signalling that a chase would be unprofitable or by forming groups.
Predation - Wikipedia
If they become a target, they can try to fend off the attack with defences such as armour, quills, unpalatability or mobbing; and they can escape an attack in progress by startling the predator, shedding body parts such as tails, or simply fleeing. They can also adopt behaviour that avoids predators by, for example, avoiding the times and places where predators forage.
Camouflage and Mimicry Dead leaf mantis 's camouflage makes it less visible to both predators and prey. Syrphid hoverfly misdirects predators by mimicking a waspbut has no sting. Prey animals make use of a variety of mechanisms including camouflage and mimicry to misdirect the visual sensory mechanisms of predators, enabling the prey to remain unrecognized for long enough to give it an opportunity to escape.
Camouflage delays recognition through coloration, shape, and pattern.
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This lizard abovecamoflauges by blending with the lichen on rocks, while the tortoise belowhas a hard shell to deter would-be predators. In this snowy environment, the polar bear is white to avoid being noticed as it approaches the seal, and the seal pup is white to avoid being noticed by the bear.
The fastest lions are able to catch food and eat, so they survive and reproduce, and gradually, faster lions make up more and more of the population. The fastest zebras are able to escape the lions, so they survive and reproduce, and gradually, faster zebras make up more and more of the population.
An important thing to realize is that as both organisms become faster to adapt to their environments, their relationship remains the same: This is true in all predator-prey relationships.
Predation ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation
Another example of predator-prey evolution is that of the Galapagos tortoise. Galapagos tortoises eat the branches of the cactus plants that grow on the Galapagos islands. On one of the islands, where long-necked tortoises live, the branches are higher off the ground.
On another island, where short-necked tortoises live, the branches are lower down.