Trust-based, respectful and cooperative relationships between teachers and learners, their parents and the wider community also influence positive learning. Tritton, A.S., Materials on Muslim Education in the. Middle Ages, p . instructed his students to dry the ink on the paper with use of posavski-obzor.info also .. Most surely the close and cordial relation between the teacher and the student was an. Abstract. This paper is an attempt to explore the nature of the relationship between teachers and students in Islamic history of education.
Of course, it is incumbent upon us as Muslims to gain knowledge, as it is a form of worship. In the case of dignity, kindness and respect to others is necessary, while in order to remain attached to religion, we are required to attain an education. Islam beautifully demonstrates to us the significance and sanctity of a teacher-student relationship in this process.
You should be very attentive to his words. You should not raise your voice above his. You should not converse with others in his presence, and you should allow people to benefit from his knowledge. Islam encourages us then to stand for the truth and speak up. If your knowledge and courtesy become much, your price will be high. Teaching work in different subjects was conducted through lectures. After completing the study at Maktab, the students were eligible for the admission to Madrasah.
No formal ceremony was observed on this occasion. The private managing body or respectable benefactors were conducting the administration of the Madrasahs. There was provision for both secular and religious education in the Madrasah. The total duration of the course was ten to twelve years in all. The medium of instruction in these institutions was the court language, Persian. But the study of Arabic was made compulsory for the Muslim students.
The Muhammedans generally followed in the field of handicraft and architecture the traditional Indian system. The religious education included a comprehensive and profound study of the Quran, commentary on Quran traditions of the prophet Muhammad, Islamic law and sometimes the tenets of Sufi creed.
At the beginning, stress was given to secular education by Muhammedans. As time went on they wanted to increase the number of their tribe and to this end, they converted many Hindus into Muslims and initiated them into Islam. In course of time religious education dominated the scene as the convert new Muslim needed religious education. As the emperor Akbar adopted the policy of religious tolerance, the prevalent curriculum was modified during his reign.
Because he anticipated some danger to the safety of his empire in providing only Islamic education to the Hindus. Moreover, the prevalent system of education appeared to be quite unsuitable to practical life. Akbar established colleges for the Hindu children where they were taught Hindu religion, philosophy and literature along with Persian.
With a view to availing themselves of the benefit of State service the Hindus evinced interest in studying Persian. In this connection the name of Raja Todarmall deserves special mention. Not being satisfied with the contemporary system of education emperor Akbar wanted to bring about improvement in the system by broadening the scope of the curriculum and making it more suitable and beneficial to the practical needs of life.
In Ain-I-Akbari, Abul Fazal has given the following account about the content of contemporary education. Akbar on his part, had also aimed at making education more useful practical and substantial. It is evident that after Akbar, the educational curriculum and system had deteriorated. That is why Aurangzeb was so very eager to improve the system of education by examining the defects and short comings.
He had strong faith in such system of education which would prepare the child for the practical aspects of life. He was not in favour of the idea that the precious time of the children should be wasted in learning only ancient and classical literature. In reality he was in favour of imparting higher education of more practical utility by including in the curriculum the study of history, geography, philosophy, art of warfare, politics and diplomacy.
The Madrasahs of medieval period could well be compared to the colleges of modem times. Then the system of education was bookish and theoretical owing to the predominance, of higher Arabic and Persian literature, grammar, prosody, poetry, etc. Education was imparted simply for the sake of education and not for the sake of life.
Like the Buddhist and Brahmanical system of education, the basis of Islamic education too was religious. During this period law was based on religious works as the Quran and long-standing traditions and conventions.
In some branches of learning Islamic education was of a lower standard and less developed in comparison to ancient Indian system of education. During medieval period domestic system of teaching was prevalent and the educational work was done by the private teacher. There were certain families of hereditary Muslim scholars whose reputation drew students from different parts of the country.
These scholars were imparting highest instruction in their respective educational centers to the students in their field of specialization.
These educational centers had to depend mostly upon the capacity of the individual teacher and his reputation. As it was the family affairs of the private teacher, it was breaking up when the family ceased to produce the scholars. Another agency of education was the wandering scholars and preachers who moved from place to place and attracted huge audience. The poetical symposia also contributed in their own way to the advancement of learning.
At the completion of the studies no examination was conducted. The students were leaving the institutions when the teacher considered them proficient in any branch of learning.
Successful completion of the study under a distinguished teacher was considered enough qualification of a student. The method of teaching in the Maktabs was mainly oral. Cramming and memorization was prevalent in this period. Children were learning verses from Quran by rote. Writing and mathematics were taught at the later stage. Monitorial system was introduced and the monitor held the charge of the class in the absence of the teacher. Realizing the short comings of the prevalent method, Emperor Akbar suggested improvement in the method of teaching.
A great portion of the life of the students is wasted by making them read many books. His Majesty orders that every school boy should first learn to write the letters of the alphabet and also learn to trace forms. He ought to learn the shape and name of each letter which may be done in two days, when the boy should proceed to write the joined letters. They may be practiced for a week after which the boy should learn some prose and poetry by heart, and then commit to memory some verses to the praise of God or moral sentences, each written separately.
Education System in India during Islamic Rule
Care is to be taken that he learns to understand everything himself, but the teacher may assist him a little. He then ought, for some time, daily practice in writing a hemistich; the verse, the former lesson. Thus from the written account it is revealed that Akbar introduced a scientific method of teaching.
But this method could not last long and gradually died out. Aurangzeb also complained for the waste of time in learning the alphabet of Arabic and Persian and a long and continuous task of learning words.
At the higher educational institution, Madrasah, the teaching was done through lecture followed by discussion. Even at this stage also oral method of teaching was in, vogue. Along with these methods, students were encouraged in developing the habit of self study by consulting books. In different science subjects there were provisions for practical and experimental work.
In Madrasahs Analytical and Inductive method were also adopted. Besides, formal disputations upon important issues were the usual features of royal courts. But severe corporal punishment was inflicted on guilty students and teachers were free to exercise their individual discretion in matters of punishment. Discipline, moral conduct and humility were regarded as the essential attributes of students and in the teaching, learning process, these things were emphasized.
For misconduct, breach of discipline, neglect in study and immoral act students were publicly caned, whipped or beaten with fists. On the other hand rewards were given to encourage able and intelligent students of unimpeachable conduct.
At the end of academic career there was provision of awarding certificates and medals. Under Islamic system of education, the teacher was held in high esteem and enjoyed an unique position in the society. The social status of the teachers was high and they were generally men of character who had the confidence and respect of their fellowmen. The relation between teacher and pupil was similar to that which existed in the case of Brahmanical education. In residential institutions both teachers and pupils resided under the same roof and reaped the advantages of closest contact.
A teacher was never confronted with any serious problem of discipline. Pupils were humble, submissive and obedient owing to the high honour and prestige of teacher in the society. Service of teachers was regarded as the sacred duty of pupils. It was a conviction that true knowledge could be attained only through the blessings of the preceptor. The monitorial system, in which the more advanced pupils were associate with the teachers in the work of teaching, is a special feature of Indian education and it was in practice both in Muslim as well as in Hindu schools.
This statement reveals how the teachers were honoured during medieval period. State Patronage and Growth of Education: The Muslims first appeared in India in the eighth century A. He promoted the cause of education in his own native country with the booty obtained from India, but did not put any efforts for advancement of Indian education.
It was Muhammad Ghori A.
He destroyed some temples at Ajmer and to have built in their places mosques and colleges. Some of the rulers of Slave Dynasty, destroyed Hindu temples and built many mosques which were centers not only of religious worship but also of education.
Student-Teacher Values in Islam
Iltutmish, Reziya and Balban were great patrons of arts and literature and kept in their courts religionists, artists, historians and poets. During the reign of Ala-ud-Din Khilji, education received a tottering blow. The research, therefore, recommends establishing healthy relationship among students and teachers by captivating direction from Islamic history of education since it is perceived not only to improve quality of education but also to equip learners with additional competencies.
Abstrak Artikel ini adalah sebuah percobaan untuk meneliti hakikat hubungan antara guru dan siswa dalam sejarah pendidikan Islam. Penelitian dipicu sebagai hasil dari investigasi yang mengarisbawahi hubungan buruk antara guru dan siswa dalam sistem pendidikan yang kontemporer.
Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian deskriptif dan qualitatif, studi membentuk bahwa hubungan guru-siswa sudah diberikan lingkungan pergaulan yang mengherankan dalam sejarah Islam dan dianggap salah satu akar penyebab persamaan mutu pendidikan. Hubungan ini terbangun atas dasar perhatian, simpati, saling memahami, kerjasama dan menghormati.Best Madrassah Of The Future - Google Classroom Islamic Studies Meets Tech - Student Orientation
Hal tersebut disimpulkan bahwa hubungan yang sehat ini meningkatkan partisipasi kelas, kepercayadirian, berpikir kritis, penelitian dan kemampuan komunikasi secara lisan termasuk dalam ranah kemampuan interpersonal dan pengembangan diri siswa. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini merekomendasikan untuk membangun hubungan yang sehat antara siswa dan guru dengan mengarahkan arahan dari sejarah pendidikan Islam karena dianggap tidak hanya untuk meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan, tetapi juga untuk membekali siswa dengan kompetensi tambahan.
Journal of Education in Muslim Society, 4 1 Exploring Education in Islam: Al-Ghazali model of the Master-Pupil Relationship applied to educational relationships within the Islamic family.