# Water volume temperature relationship

### cylinder experiment frame

For many solids, expansion is directly proportional to temperature change. Δℓ = αℓ0ΔT Volumes expand three times as much as lengths do. ΔV = 3αV0ΔT ice is less dense than water; water is most dense at 4 ℃ (ρ = kg/m3). An important property of water is the relationship between temperature and We can therefore determine changes in density (mass/volume) by measuring. The incremental volume change the temperature above the temperature (T0,

Most materials have a lower density of the liquid than the solid but this isn't always true. Water has a higher density in the liquid state than the solid, so ice cubes float. Within a particular phase, how does the density depend on temperature?

### Weird Science: Macroscopic Changes in Liquid Water Volume | posavski-obzor.info

Remember that temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules within the substance. Pure Water The density of liquid water is approximately 1. Let's look at the density of water at 25 deg C and compare that to a higher temperature, 80 deg C.

• Explanation of the Density Anomalies of Water (D1-D22)
• Water's Unexpected Properties

The density decreases from 0. This makes sense because, as heat is added to the liquid water, there is greater kinetic energy of the molecules and there are also more vibrations of the water molecules. Together these mean that each H2O unit in liquid water takes up more space as the temperature increases.

We see the same trend in going from liquid water at 25 deg C 0.

### Water's unexplained properties

Density increase as the temperature decreases. Below 4 deg C, however, the density decreases again. How can we explain this?

Remember that liquid water and solid water have the same network of bonds. Liquid water at 25 deg is so rapidly breaking bonds between H2O units and reforming them that extra water molecules get trapped inside the water lattice.

The positive change in volume when water freezes doesn't have a necessary logical connection to how the volume changes as the liquid is cooled.

## Thermal Expansion

Here's some of the data: So yes, the first little bit of warming of ice water causes it to shrink a tiny amount. Further warming causes more significant expansion. Most of the oceans are warm enough for global warming to cause net expansion. It's already happening, and it's measurable.

Is there a liquid-solid continuum? Today I began to think about the water of these lakes and the liquid-solid state continuum that must exist as the colder, less dense water rises to the top to freeze and its interaction with the dare I say "warmer" water below.

Conceptually, I think, there must be a "slush-zone" slightly above where the water is in equilibrium where the water is more viscous.

## Exploring Our Fluid Earth

I'm thinking of this in the same terms of the transition zones between magma and mantle. My mind wandered a bit after this, beyond the local lakes and the spring thaw to the constant cold polar regions.

If my idea of a "slush zone" is valid, then, while the water itself would be ever changing the zone's presence would be constant. Does this increased viscosity make for a micro-environment of sorts?

Randy- I made a guess as to what question you were following up. You can write back if you meant another thread.

It turns out that there really isn't a liquid-solid continuum. There's an abrupt difference, in density, hardness, electrical properties, etc.